William Bradford Institute
for Study of the
Early Settlement of America

Christ Did Not Die in Vain

by Robert Traill

Sermon Five of Six Sermons on Galatians 2:21.

"If righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain." Gal. 2:21.
"I do not frustrate the grace of God; for if righteousness come by the law, then
is Christ dead in vain." You have heard of the connection of this verse with the
preceding part of the chapter; and of its relation to the scope of the apostle,
and to that point of gospel doctrine that he is there proving; and that is,
"That a man is not justified by the law, but by Christ, or by faith in him. And
this verse contains two arguments, the first of which I have already spoken to,
and finished. In the former part of the words, "I do not frustrate the grace of
God," would the apostle say, "If I seek righteousness by the works of the law, I
should frustrate the grace of God;" and from this I have spoken at some length
to four points of doctrine.

1st, The grace of God shines gloriously in justifying a sinner by faith in Jesus
2dly, That it is a horrible sin to frustrate the grace of God.
3dly, That all who seek to be justified by the law, do frustrate the grace of
4thly, This is a sin that no godly man, no sound believer, can be guilty of; and
this I observed from the apostle's saying, "I do not frustrate the grace of
God." And this was spoken by him as he was a believer, and not as an
extraordinary officer of the church.

I am now to enter upon the apostle's second argument, in the latter part of the
words, "For if righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain." You
may see, by the different character, that the word "come" is there added by our
translators, to make the sense more smooth. According to the running of the word
in the original, it is, "If righteousness by the law, the Christ is dead in
vain." If it be by the law, if it come by the law, then Christ is dead in
vain. There are implied and contained in these words two negatives, and two
positives; and I would speak a little to each. The two negatives are these:

I. That the righteousness that justifies a sinner comes not by the law.
II. That Christ died not in vain.
The two positives that are contained in the words are these:
I. That if righteousness came by the law, then Christ died in vain.
II. That it is a horrible sin to make Christ's death to be in vain. And how a
sinner can be guilty of it, you shall hear.

I. The first negative in the text is, That righteousness comes not by the law;
and this is implied, when the apostle speaks of it, as a principle from whence
so absurd a conclusion would follow: it is plainly intimated that righteousness
comes not by the law, because the apostle saith, if it did do so, "Christ was
dead in vain."

I would speak a little to this that the righteousness of a sinner for
justification before God, comes not by the law. There is nothing that a man doth
according to the law, there is nothing that a man suffers according to the law,
that can be his righteousness before God; and there is something of both these
attempted by men, but both in vain. This I would prove, that no sinner can have
righteousness by the law.

1. The law uncovers sin, and that is the apostle's argument: "Therefore by the
deeds of the law shall no flesh be justified in his sight; for by the law is the
knowledge of sin;" (Rom. 3:20). There is no sin in the law; but the knowledge of
sin by the law, is the knowledge of a contrary by its contrary. The law is
perfectly holy; but this strict rule reveals the crookedness that is in man's
heart. By the law is the knowledge of sin," (Gal. 3:11). But that no man is
justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident, for "the just shall
live by faith." It was evident to Paul, and it is evident to believers, but it
can never be evident to an unbeliever, that no man is justified by the law, or
by the works of it.

2. No man can be justified by the law, because the law condemns every sin, and
every sinner for every sin. The law of God is so strict, that it condemns every
sin. Now, that which condemns, cannot justify: for these two are contrary, "As
many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse," (Gal. 3:10). The
apostle Paul was a bold divine; he spoke the truth of God boldly, and cared not
what men thought of it. Had the apostle said, "As many as break the law, are
under the curse," we would have thought that pretty tolerable; but saith he, "As
many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse." Why so? Because their
works are not perfect; for it is written, saith the apostle, "Cursed is every
one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law
to do them." The law curseth every one that cannot fulfil it; if a man could
fulfil the whole law of God, and transgress but in one point, yet that one sin
would be condemned by the law, and the sinner for it.

3. No man can be justified by the works of the law, because every man is a
sinner: "What things soever the law saith, it saith to them that are under the
law, that every mouth may be stopped, and that all the world may become guilty
before God: therefore by the deeds of the law shall no flesh be justified in the
sight of God; for by the law is the knowledge of sin," (Rom. 3:19, 20) The
question that the apostle is there upon, is on this point, that is so great a
point in the Christian religion, How shall a sinner be justified before God? It
is not how a holy man may be justified; it is not how a man that never sinned
may be justified; but it is, How shall a sinner be justified? A man that is
flesh be justified? Now, saith the apostle, there is no flesh justified in the
sight of God.

4. The law knows no mercy. Mercy and grace belong to another court than the law:
"The law came by Moses; but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ," (John 1:17).
Condemnation for sin belongs to the law, but justification from sin belongs to
the gospel. The law hath nothing to do with the one, and the gospel hath nothing
to do with the other. The law hath nothing to do to condemn them that the gospel
absolves. But you will say, "Is not this a great fault in the law, that it
cannot justify a man?" The apostle speaks some way like this in Heb. 7:18, 19;
though I do believe that the apostle there rather means the Old Testament
dispensation, than this law, in its more general comprehensive sense, that I am
now speaking of: "For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going
before, for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof; for the law made nothing
perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did, by the which we draw nigh to
God." This is a common thought arising in the hearts of men, "Is it not a fault
in the law, that it cannot justify a man? Is it not a fault that the law can
send men to hell, but not bring them to heaven?" I answer, No: It is the
excellency of the law; not its fault, but its glory; for let us consider a
little what the law doth about righteousness.

1st, The law discloses and reveals a perfect righteousness; there is no surer,
no better rule of righteousness in this world, than the holy law of God:
therefore, when our Lord is dealing with a poor carnal legalist, a puffed-up
young man, that came to him, in great haste, with great zeal, running to him
like a man that would be in heaven before any body else, "Good master, what good
thing shall I do to inherit eternal life?" Saith our Lord, "You know, no man can
come to heaven, but he that is perfectly righteous; now the only rule of perfect
righteousness is the law of God; and seeing thou art in the vein for doing,"
"keep the commandments." The poor man, not knowing his own heart, nor the
breadth of God's law, replies, "All these things have I kept from my youth up."
Saith our Lord, "I will prove thee a breaker of the law, and a gross one too;"
"Go and sell all that thou hast, and give to the poor; and follow me, and thou
shalt have treasures in heaven." Not that a title to eternal life comes to any
man by giving his estate to the poor; but our Lord hereby reveals the rottenness
of the poor self-justified man's heart, that the man quickly, before all the
company, revealed that his estate was more valuable to him than eternal life.
Our Lord would have him give an evident proof, that his heart was disengaged
from the world, and then follow him, and he should be saved; but he went away
sorrowful, for he had great possessions, (Matt. 19:16), There is a perfect rule
of righteousness in the law of God, for the most perfect creature that ever was:
for sinless Adam in his state of innocency. "The law of God is perfect:" so it
is often called in the word of God.

2d, This righteousness that the law of God reveals, it also commands by its
authority; all manner of righteousness is commanded by the law of God.
3d, All sin is threatened by the law of God; yea, the lack of this righteousness
which it commands, is threatened by the law.

4th, By the law, the promise of eternal life is made to the righteous; for the
law of God, completely considered, hath the promise of eternal life to all the
obeyers of it; but never man shall reach it, because the righteousness of the
law is impracticable; it requires that righteousness that no man can perform;
and, therefore, what it promises no man can attain to. This the apostle calls
the impossibility of the law: so it is in the original; we read it, "What the
law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh," (Rom 8:3). The true
reason why the law cannot give life, is because of the flesh of them that are
under it; no man can fulfil the righteousness of the law, and therefore no man
can attain to life by the law. So much for the first negative implied here, That
no righteousness can come by the works of the law.

II. The other negative is this, That Christ died not in vain. Now, this word, in
vain, respects two things: 1st, That is said to be done in vain which is
needless. 2dly, That is said to be in vain, that is unprofitably done. Now,
neither of these can be said of the death of Christ: there was great need of his
dying, and great good came by his dying, and therefore he died not in vain.
1st, There was great need of Christ's dying, and that upon manifold respects; I
will name a few.

1. In regard of the decree of God, there was a necessity of his dying; and this
our Lord had in his eye, when he was come just upon the borders of dying: "Now
is my soul troubled, What shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for
this cause came I unto this hour;" (John 12:2-7), where our Lord hath respect
to the necessity of his dying, upon the account of the divine appointment.
2. It was necessary upon the account of the covenant between the Father and the
Son: Christ promised to die, and, therefore, he must be as good as his word: "A
body thou hast prepared me; then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book
it is written of me, to do thy will) O God." And what was that will of God?
Dying was his will, and the blessed consequences of it. (Heb. 10:5, 7).
3. It was needful upon the account of the scriptures; and this our Lord insists
on frequently. The scriptures of the Old Testament foretold Christ's death:
there were many predictions and prophecies of it; many types and shadows of it;
therefore our Lord tells his disciples: "These are the words that I spake unto
you, whilst I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled which are
written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning
me," (Luke 24:44). And again, (ver. 46), "Thus it is written, and thus it
behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day." There was a
necessity of it for the fulfilling of the scriptures, and, therefore, our Lord
rebuked Peter, when he offered to make a defence for his master: "How then shall
the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?" (Matt. 26:54). "Put up thy
sword, man, this is no place for that work: the scriptures are fulfilling."

4. There was a necessity of Christ's death, for the salvation of his people.
Their justification and their salvation were only brought about by the death of
Jesus Christ.

2dly, And that leads me to the second head Christ's death was not in vain: for
there was great fruit and profit by it.

1. It brought in an everlasting righteousness, which should stand accepted
before God: this is what our Lord wrought out by his death, foretold by the
prophet Daniel, "To bring in everlasting righteousness," (chap. 9:24).
2. There was not only a righteousness brought in, but by Christ's death there
was a purchase made; a purchase of grace and glory for his people. The death of
our Lord Jesus Christ purchased great things for us, even all things that we
enjoy. It did not indeed purchase the covenant of grace; for the covenant of
grace sent Christ; but yet it purchased all the blessings of the covenant; for
the grand condition of that covenant was, that Christ must buy all the good
things contained in it by the price of his own blood.
3. Christ died not in vain, for his blood confirmed and sealed the charter:
"This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission
of sins, drink ye all of it," (Matt. 26:27, 28). Christ's death confirmed the
covenant, and made it a testament, (Heb. 9:15, 20).
4. Christ's death was not in vain, but for great profit: for thereby a way to
heaven was made plain to believers, a patent way to heaven. How blessedly doth
the apostle speak of this, "Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into
the holiest by the blood of Jesus: by a new and living way which he hath
consecrated for us, through the vail, that is to say, his flesh," (Heb. 10:19,
20). The meaning is, his flesh rent; the consecrating of the way, was by rending
the flesh of Jesus Christ. The righteousness that justifies us the blessings
that make us happy the covenant that secures them and the way to heaven, are
all by the death of Jesus Christ: and they are strangers to all these things,
who do not know that their way to them lies through this vail of the slain Son
of God. So much for the two negatives.

Secondly, I am now to speak to the two positives in the words.

1. That if righteousness come by the law, then is Christ dead in vain. I have
told you that righteousness comes not by the law, and that Christ did not die in
vain. Now, the apostle joins them together, and shews what a strange aspect they
have one upon another. "If righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in
vain." This is an inference that will necessarily follow, If righteousness comes
by the law, then Christ died in vain, to work out righteousness; if
righteousness comes by the law, Christ's death was in vain in the main end of
it, viz., to work out righteousness. My friends, I would have you consider this
with yourselves, and this one thought may serve to rectify many mistakes: Our
Lord Jesus Christ did not die to make hard things easy, to make a hard way to
heaven easy; but Christ died to make impossible things certain. He did not die
to make it more easy to get to heaven than it was before; but he died to make
certain a way to heaven, that was impossible before. "What the law could not do,
in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness
of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh," (Rom. 8:3). And again,
"If there had been a law that could have given righteousness, verily
righteousness had been by the law;" (Gal. 3:21). But because there was no law
that could give righteousness to man, therefore Christ came to bring about that
which was altogether impossible. How unworthily do they think of Jesus Christ,
and the grand concern of his death, that look upon it only as purchasing a new
law, whereby men might come to heaven on easier terms than they could by the
old! Christ came to purchase a new way to heaven: a way that none could make but
he: a way without which none could ever have come to heaven: and really
(though I acknowledge that about things unrevealed, and about the secret things
of God, men should be sober) that notion of the possibility of the salvation of
the heathen, that never heard of Jesus Christ, is condemned in this text. If a
Pagan that never heard of Christ, may be saved, then is Christ dead in vain. If
the end that Christ died for, can be reached any other way, then certainly
Christ died in vain. If the righteousness that Christ died for, could have been
attained any other way; if the fulfilling of the law that Christ underwent, in
order to this righteousness; if these could have been done any other way, Christ
died in vain. But these things are not so.

2. The second positive is, That making Christ's death to be in vain, is a
horrible sin. The apostle is here arguing from absurdities; and he argues from
two of the greatest that can enter into the minds of men. "If you seek
righteousness by the law, you frustrate the grace of God, and what a wretched
creature is that! If you seek righteousness by the law, you make Christ's death
in vain; and can you do anything worse, than to kick against the grace of God,
and to make the death of Christ in vain?" These sins are very great. But you
will say, Can any man make Christ's death in vain? No. No man, nor any devil
neither, nor all the devils together, can frustrate the virtue of Christ's
death; it is above the reach of hell and earth. The devil, and the wicked world,
thought to make Christ's life in vain, by putting him to death; to put an end to
his doctrine, and life, and disciples, by killing him; and to put an end to all,
by keeping him in the grave: but to make Christ's death in vain is utterly
impossible; it is so certain, so reverend a transaction of divine Providence,
contrived in so much wisdom, that its end must necessarily be reached. But,
though no man can make Christ's death to be in vain really yet,
1st, A man may make it in vain to himself; he may reduce himself into the same
case as if Christ had never died. "Behold, I Paul, say unto you, that if you be
circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing," (Gal. 5:2). A strange word!
"Christ shall profit you nothing!" Was the apostle Paul a man that preached an
unprofitable Christ? No; but you render him vain, if you seek righteousness by
the law. (Vet. 4), "Christ is become of no effect to you; whosoever is justified
by the law, is fallen from grace." A justified man by the law, there never was
in this world; but the apostle speaks of it here as supposing the best;
supposing they had got all that they could have devised, for their justification
by the law, supposing that they had obeyed the law more perfectly than any
sinner ever had done, saith the apostle, "This is all the benefit you would reap
by it, Christ's righteousness would be of no effect to you." A man makes
Christ's death to be in vain to himself, when he doth not lay hold of its power
and virtue by faith.

2d, A man makes Christ's death to be in vain, by doing all that he can to make
it so; though he doth not do so in fact. And you will find this the rule of
God's dealing; he measures men's wickedness, and judges of their actions, by the
native design of them, though they never reach it. In all acts of dishonouring
God, and rebellion against him, God deals with men according to their sinful
intentions in these sins, though they fall far short of taking effect. A sinner,
by his self-righteousness, cannot make Christ's death to be in vain; but he doth
all that he can to make it so: and this is what the apostle means here when he
saith, "If righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain." "You do
all that you can to make Christ's death in vain," I should now come to speak
something of the greatness of this sin, of making Christ's death in vain; of
entertaining any principles or practices that have a tendency that way. But I
cannot enter upon this now.


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