William Bradford Institute
for Study of the
Early Settlement of America


by William Ames

1. The virtue of contentment is the acquiescence of the mind in the
lot God has given, 1 Tim. 6:6; Heb. 13:5; Phil. 4:11.

2. This contentment is ordered in the tenth commandment as appears
from the words themselves. It is not at all proper to refer this
precept to the inward and original purity of righteousness, which is
the fountain of all obedience; such purity is not commanded in any
one commandment but in all. And the precept no more belongs to the
second table where it is situated than to the first.

3. Of all the virtues contained in the second table, however, none
is more internal or intimate to vital righteousness than
contentment. By it we are, as it were, led by the hand to
contemplate and seek righteousness. And so righteousness in its
purity is fitly handled here.

4. Joy for the prosperity of our neighbor, as if it were our own, is
part of contentment, Rom. 12:15.

5. In contentment and joy are found the height and perfection of all
love towards our neighbor. Hence contentment is in a way the
perfection of godliness and of a godly man. 1 Tim. 6:6, There is
great gain in godliness, met autarkeias, with contentment (or, that
which produces the perfection of contentment).

6. Therefore, the last commandment stands at the end of an order
which proceeds from the less to the more perfect and from the better
known to the less known.

7. For this is our most perfect duty and yet least known to us by
nature: Whatever we conceive or will should be joined with the good
of our neighbor.

8. Although by its nature this is first among duties to our
neighbor as the foundation of all the others, it is commanded in
the last place, because it is the last to come into being for
corrupted man.

9. Covetousness is opposed to contentment, Heb. 13:5.
10. Covetousness does not mean the power and faculty of desiring and
seeking what is natural; or the act of that natural faculty, or its
lawful operation, which is also natural; or the whole inclination of
our corrupt nature (not specially condemned in any one precept but
in the whole law); or the actual inordinate primary lusts (for the
most part contrary to religion and condemned in the first table); or
last, lusts which tend to the hurt of our neighbor (for those having
a deliberate will and purpose behind them are condemned in the other
commandments). Covetousness means that desire which first instigates
and excites the mind to yearn for the good things of our neighbors
although it has not yet occurred to us to get them by unlawful
means, 1 Kings 21:2; Mark 10:19.

11. The affinity or close connection which these primary motives of
injustice have with original corruption (whence they arise) has led
many to confuse the two. But the following should be considered.
First, original sin is an inborn disposition [habitus], so to speak,
perpetually and continually with us during this life, and always in
the same manner while we live here, but those motives are transient
expressions of the disposition. Second, the sin in us is no more an
original than a general principle of all vicious action, while the
expressions of it which are condemned here are plainly limited to
those which affect only our neighbor.

12. The Apostle himself in Rom. 7 clearly explains this commandment
by a figure describing the operations of sin. Concupiscence, verse
7, is the same as the Passions of sinners, verse 5, and as
Concupiscence effected by sin, verse 8, and must be distinguished
from Indwelling sin, verse 7.

13. It is no marvel that the Pharisees (of whom Paul was one) did
not acknowledge the first motives of covetousness to be sins. The
same refusal is stiffly made by their cousins, the papists.

14. Those who divide this last commandment about covetousness in
two, one part about coveting the house and the other about coveting
the wife and other objects have forsaken all reason in this matter.
They are forced either to abandon the second commandment of the
first table or to turn it into a needless appendix of the first
commandment so that they may in some way retain the number ten. Or
rather, as is evident with many of them, obscuring the force of the
second commandment in order with some show to separate from it
themselves and their superstitions, they tear apart this tenth
commandment. They have no choice about which is the ninth and which
the tenth commandment because in the repetition of the law, Deut.
5:27, coveting the wife is put before coveting the house. They
cannot say it is clearly wrong to join together these two types of
coveting when they themselves in explaining the decalogue always
join or rather confuse the ninth and tenth commandments. Last, the
very words of the decalogue plainly show that it is one commandment,
when they forbid one act (You shall not covet) and have a common
object (Anything that is your neighbor's).

15. An inordinate love of ourselves is a cause of covetousness,
16. This philaoutia, self-love, is the source and origin of all sins
not which is called philaoutia, 2 Tim. 3:2. only against our
neighbor, but against God himself, 2 Tim. 3:4.

17. Covetousness is divided by John into that of the flesh, having
to do with food and lust, that of the eyes, having to do with
outward delight and profit, and the pride of living, having to do
with the glory and pomp of this world, 1 John 2:16.

18. Envy or an Eye being evil is opposed to joy and pleasure in the
prosperity of our neighbor. Matt. 20:15. Likewise opposed is any
epikairekakia rejoicing over the hurt of our neighbor, Ps. 70:3, 4;

19. In the last commandment that perfection of righteousness is
commanded which is in a way central to the whole second table, just
as in the first commandment of the first table all parts of religion
are in a way commanded. The first commandment of the first table
contains the first and great commandment, You shall love God with
nil your heart and the second commandment, like unto it, You shall
love your neighbor as yourself, is contained in the last commandment
of the second table.

20. From the perfection which shines forth in any one of these
commandments it is manifest that a complete and accurate fulfilling
of the law is impossible even to the faithful by the grace bestowed
upon them in this life. The rule and measure of our obedience (as
has been well said) is in affirmatives, You shall love with all your
heart and in negatives. You shall not covet, both of which are
impossible in this life. It necessarily follows that no one can
satisfy exactly the law.

21. In this life we know only in part, 1 Cor. 13:9, and, therefore,
act only in part. We receive only the first fruits of the Spirit,
Rom. 8:23. Therefore, we cannot precisely observe a law wholly
spiritual, Rom. 7:14. We carry about us flesh that lusts against the
Spirit, Gal. 5:17, and we cannot obey without covetousness,
inclining and drawing us another way. Finally we are not perfect,
Phil. 3:12, and we cannot render perfect obedience. We always need
to have that petition in our heart and on our lips, Forgive us our

22. Yet it is rightly and truly said that the Yoke of Christ is
easy, his burden light. Matt. 11:30, and His commandments not
grievous, 1 John 5:3. Here the yoke is considered, first, as the law
is actually observed by the faithful who delight in it, Rom. 7:22;
Ps. 119:14, 16, not as it ought to be observed. Even this kind of
observance by the faithful brings rest to their souls. Matt. 11:29,
although the imperfection which still cleaves to them is grievous
and troublesome to them. Second, the yoke is here considered in
relation to the spirit and not the flesh. Matt. 26:41. Third, it is
here united with the remission of all the sin and imperfection
which cling to our endeavors. Fourth, the yoke is light and not
grievous in comparison with the letter of the law which kills.

Fifth, it is a preparation for the reward appointed by God for
obedience begun, though imperfect in which sense all afflictions
are counted light, 2 Cor. 4:17. The ease and lightness of the law
of God is not in proportion to our strength: It comes from the grace
of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God, with the gift of the
Holy Spirit which is with all those who love the law of God. Amen.


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