William Bradford Institute
for Study of the
Early Settlement of America


Editorial note by T.C. McLuhan: Sa-go-ye-wat-ha, or Red Jacket, Seneca chief,
and great orator of the Six Nations, was born near the present site of Geneva,
New York, in 1750. In 1805, a young missionary named Cram was sent into the
country of the Iroquois by the Evangelical Missonary Society of Massachusetts to
"spread the Word." A council was held at Buffalo, New York, and Red Jacket made the following reply telling Cram why he did not wish to have the missionary stay with them. N.B. Wood, in Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs, recounts that after
making his statement Red Jacket moved to shake hands with the missionary; Cram refused saying, "There was no fellowship between the religion of God and the Devil." According to Wood, the Indians smiled and retired peacefully.

Brothers, our seats were once large, and yours were small. You have now become a great people, and we have scarcely a place left to spread our blankets. You have got our country, but are not satisfied; you want to force your religion upon us.Brother, continue to listen. You say that you are sent to instruct us how to
worship the Great Spirit agreeable to his mind; and if we do not take hold of
the religion which you white people teach, we shall be unhappy hereafter. You
say that you are right, and we are lost. How do we know this to be true? We
understand that your religion is written in a book. If it was intended for us as
well as you, why has not the Great Spirit given to us and not only to us, but
to our forefathers the knowledge of that book, with the means of understanding
it rightly? We only know what you tell us about it. How shall we know when to
believe, being so often deceived by the white people?

Brother, you say there is but one way to worship and serve the Great Spirit. If
there is but one religion, why do you white people differ so much about it? Why
not all agree, as you can all read the book?

Brother, we do not understand these things. We are told that your religion was
given to your forefathers, and has been handed down from father to son. We also,
have a religion which was given to our forefathers, and has been handed down to
us, their children. We worship in that way. It teaches us to be thankful for all
favors we receive; to love each other, and be united. We never quarrel about
religion, because it is a matter which concerns each man and the Great Spirit.
Brother, we do not wish to destroy your religion or take it from you; we only
want to enjoy our own.

Brother, we have been told that you have been preaching to the white people in
this place. These people are our neighbors: We are acquainted with them. We will
wait a little while and see what effect your preaching has upon them. If we find
it does them good, makes them honest and less disposed to cheat Indians, we will
consider again of what you have said.

Editorial note by T.C. McLuhan: Red Jackets hostility toward Christianity
erupted on every occasion. Referring to the unwise missionary Cram, he once
said: "The White people were not content with the wrongs they had done his
people, but wanted to cram their doctrines down their throats." When asked by a
gentleman in 1824, why he was so opposed to missionaries, he replied:
They do us no good. If they are not useful to the white people and do them no
good, why do they send them among the Indians? If they are useful to the white
people and do them good, why do they not keep them at home? They [the white men] are surely bad enough to need the labor of everyone who can make them better. These men [the missionaries] know we do not understand their religion. We cannot read their book they tell us different stories about what it contains, and we believe they make the book talk to suit themselves. If we had no money, no land and no country to be cheated out of these black coats would not trouble
themselves about our good hereafter. The Great Spirit will not punish us for
what we do not know. He will do justice to his red children. These black coats
talk to the Great Spirit, and ask for light that we may see as they do, when
they are blind themselves and quarrel about the light that guides them. These
things we do not understand, and the light which they give us makes the straight
and plain path trod by our fathers, dark and dreary. The black coats tell us to
work and raise corn; they do nothing themselves and would starve to death if
someone did not feed them. All they do is to pray to the Great Spirit; but that
will not make corn and potatoes grow; if it will why do they beg from us and
from the white people. The red men knew nothing of trouble until it came from
the white men; as soon as they crossed the great waters they wanted our country,
and in return have always been ready to teach us to quarrel about their
religion. Red Jacket can never be the friend of such men. If they [the Indians]
were raised among white people, and learned to work and read as they do, it
would only make their situation worse.... We are few and weak, but may for a
long time be happy if we hold fast to our country, and the religion of our

SOURCE: McLuhan, T.C. Touch the Earth: A Self-Portrait of Indian Existence (New
York: Promontory Press, 1971), pp. 60, 61, 63.

Primary sources:
Hodge, F.W., ed. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Bulletin 30,
Bulletin of American Ethnology, 1907, vol. 2, pp. 360-363.
Stone, William L. Life and Times of Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha, or Red Jacket (New York;
London: Wiley & Putnam, 1841), pp. 189-193, 334.
Wood, Norman B. Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs (Aurora, IL: American Indian
Historical Publishing Company, 1906), pp. 254-256.


Promoting a Greater Understanding of the Pilgrims and Puritans