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Has America Forgotten Its Divine Origin and Destiny?

A Primer

By

Michael L. Chadwick

Former Professional Staff Member, Subcommittee on the Constitution,
Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate and Director of the National
Bicentennial Program on the U. S. Constitution, Washington, D. C.

Boise, Idaho: Liberty Park USA Publishing Company
P. O. Box 16184. Boise, Idaho 83715

Copyright © 2007 by Michael L. Chadwick. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 of Electronic Texts by Michael L. Chadwick. All rights reserved. No part of this electronic text may be reproduced, distributed, stored in electronic databases, personal computers, search engine databases, web sites or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods without the prior written permission of the publisher. Electronic fingerprints have been placed in the code and text to prevent copyright violations.

Table of Contents

Part I—The Rise of God’s New Israel in America

1.     The Holy Bible Is the Word of God

2.     America Was Kept Hidden from the World by God

3.     The Pilgrims and Puritans Came to America for Religious Freedom

4.     The Rise of God’s New Israel

5.     The Revolutionary War Was Decreed by God

6.     The Early Clergy Played a Major Role in Promoting Liberty

7.     The Declaration of Independence Is America’s Spiritual Manifesto

8.     State Constitutions Are Key to Preserving Liberty

9.     The U. S. Constitution Is an Inspired Document

10.     The Federalist Is America’s Political Bible

11.     The Bill of Rights Is America’s Ten Commandments

12.     George Washington’s Farewell Address Was Inspired by God

13.     The Free Market System Guarantees Economic Liberty

14.     The Civil War Was God’s Retribution upon the Nation for Slavery

15.     America’s Greatest Exports—Freedom and Christianity

Part II—Under Siege – The Secular War against the Holy Scriptures

16.     The Holy Bible—The Foundation of Reality

17.     The Rise of Agnosticism and Atheism in Europe

18.     The School of Higher Criticism

19.     Charles Lyell Seeks to Replace Biblical Catastrophism

20.     Charles Darwin Seeks to Replace the Holy Bible

21.     Theistic Evolution—the Seduction of the Clergy

22.     Intellectuals Embrace Darwinism

23.     Secularism Takes Over Education in America

24.     Secularism Takes Over Government and the Courts

25.     Secularism Takes Over the Media

26.     Secularism Takes Over the Foundations

27.     A New Secular Religion Arises in America

28.     A New Secular State Arises in America

29.     Secularism Seeks to Replace Christianity in America

30.     Is It Time to Replace Secularism with Christianity?

*******

Statements by Early Clergy and Statesmen

Virtues of the Christian System

     Let divines and philosophers, statesmen and patriots, unite their endeavors to renovate the age, by impressing the minds of men with the importance of educating their little boys and girls, of inculcating in the minds of youth the fear and love of the Deity and universal philanthropy, and, in subordination to these great principles, the lover of their country; of instructing them in the art of self-government without which they never can act a wise part in the government of societies, great or small; in short, of leading them in the study and practice of the exalted virtues of the Christian system....—Samuel Adams, October 4, 1790

The Influence of Christianity

     To the kindly influence of Christianity we owe that degree of civil freedom and political and social happiness which mankind now enjoys. In proportion as the genuine effects of Christianity re diminished in any nation; either through unbelief, or the corruption of its doctrines, or the neglect of its institutions; in the same proportion will the people of that nation recede from the blessings of genuine freedom, and approximate the miseries of complete despotism.—Dr. Jedediah Morse, April 25, 1799

The Holy Bible

     The moral principles and precepts contained in the scriptures ought to form the basis of all our civil constitutions and laws. All the miseries and evils which men suffer from vice, crime, ambition, injustice, oppression, slavery, and war, proceed from their despising or neglecting the precepts contained in the Bible.—Noah Webster

America—A Christian Nation

     The proposition that the United States of America are a Christian and Protestant nation is not so much the assertion of a principle as the statement of a fact. That fact is not simply that the great majority of the people are Christians and Protestants, but t he the organic life, the institutions, laws, and official action of the government, whether that action should be legislative, judicial, or executive, is, and of right should be, and in fact must be, in accordance with the principles of Protestant Christianity.—Reverend Charles Hodge, Princeton Seminary, 1876

America Is a Christian Nation

     This is a Christian nation, first in name, and secondly because of the many and mighty elements of pure Christianity which have given it character and shaped its destiny from the beginning. It is preeminently the land of the Bible, of the Christian Church, and of the Christian Sabbath. It is the land of the great and extensive and oft-repeated revivals of a spiritual religion,—the land of a free conscience and of free speech,—the land of noble charities and of manifold and earnest efforts for t he elevation and welfare of the human race. The chief security and glory of the United States of America has been, is now, and will forever, the prevalence and domination of the Christian faith.—B. Sutherland

Diffuse a Knowledge of the Bible

     Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and the hungry will be fed, and the naked clothed. Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and the stranger will be sheltered, the prisoner visited, and the sick ministered unto. Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and Temperance will rest upon a surer basis than any mere private pledge or public statute. Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and the peace of the world will be secured by more substantial safeguards than either the mutual fear, or the reciprocal interests, of princes or of people. Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and the day will be hastened, as it can be hastened in no other way, when every yoke shall be loosened, and every bond broken, and when there shall be no more leading into captivity....—John Winthrop

The Religious Character of America

     Finally, let us not forget the religious character of our origin. Our fathers were brought hither by their high veneration for the Christian religion. They journeyed by its light, and labored in its hope. They sought to incorporate its principles with the elements of their society, and to diffuse its influence through all their institutions, civil, political, or literary. Let us cherish these sentiments, and extend this influence still more widely; in the full conviction, that, that is the happiest society which partakes in the highest degree of the mild and peaceful spirit of Christianity.—Daniel Webster

*******

Preface

Part I—White House Guest Taken to Mayo Clinic

     On January 20, 2004 one of America’s most distinguished citizens and a close personal friend of the president was taken secretly to Scottsdale, Arizona for emergency treatment. It appears that the VIP was visiting with the president in the Oval office prior to the State of the Union address when he became disoriented and confused. Due to the celebrity status of the guest and the possible effect upon Wall Street and world financial markets (if word of his illness was discovered by the press), the Secret Service decided to secretly escort him to Andrews Air Force base outside Washington, D. C. He was quietly flown to the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona on a U. S. Air Force Lear jet for a comprehensive examination and diagnosis.

     When the plane arrived in Phoenix, the Secret Service quickly escorted the VIP to a private entrance at the Mayo Clinic. A team of doctors had been alerted and were waiting for the guest when he arrived. The guest was given a battery of mental and physical examinations and tests.

     After several days of examinations the group of distinguished doctors and medial examiners met in secret to discuss the findings of their week long examination of the VIP. The team of doctors was united in their diagnosis of their renowned guest. One of the most famous people in American history was suffering from an acute case of amnesia.

     The noted guest could not remember his name, where he came from, what he was doing at the present time or where he was going in the future.

Types of Amnesia in the World Today

     Amnesia is “a disturbance in the memory of information stored in long—term memory, in contrast to short—term memory, manifested by total or partial inability to recall past experiences.” (Stedman’s Medical Dictionary.) The medical examiners pointed out to family and friends of the guest that there are several types of amnesia:

     “Anterograde Amnesia—Inability to remember ongoing events after the incidence of trauma or the onset of the disease that causes amnesia.

     “Emotional—Hysterical Amnesia—Memory loss caused by psychological trauma; usually a temporary condition.

     “Lacunar Amnesia—Inability to remember a specific event.

     “Korsakoff Amnesia—Memory loss caused by chronic alcoholism

     “Post-hypnotic Amnesia—Memory loss sustained from a hypnotic state; can include inability to recall events that occurred during hypnosis or information stored in long-term memory.

     “Retrograde Amnesia—Inability to remember events that occurred before the incidence of trauma or the onset of disease that caused the amnesia..

     “Transient Global Amnesia—Spontaneous memory loss that can last from minutes to several hours; usually seen in middle-aged to elderly people.” (Stedman’s Medical Dictionary.)

     Based upon a preliminary diagnosis and examination, the doctors ruled out the following types of amnesia: (1) Lacunar Amnesia because the memory loss experienced by the VIP involves more than a single event; (2) Korsakoff Amnesia because the patient did not consume alcohol; (3) post-hypnotic Amnesia because the patient had never been hypnotized; and (4) Transient Global Amnesia because the memory loss has lasted for several days instead of several hours.

     The team of distinguished doctors believed the patient was suffering from a combination of Anterograde Amnesia, Emotional-Hysterical Amnesia and Retrograde Amnesia. They were quick to point out that it would be necessary to conduct further tests, studies and evaluations before a final diagnosis could be reached. The team also assured family and friends of the VIP guest that in most cases amnesia was just a temporary condition lasting for a few weeks or months.

     After extensive consultations with the distinguished group of doctors at the Mayo Clinic, close relatives and friends of the guest decided it would be best to seclude the VIP at a private resort in the desert of Arizona, while a team of doctors at the Mayo Clinic and around America could devise a medical plan to help the guest regain his memory.

Important Items That the VIP Guest Could Not Remember

     The doctors and medical staff at the hospital prepared a detailed list of items which the VIP could not recall. Their special guest could not remember that:

1.     The Holy Bible is the Word of God

2.     America Was Kept Hidden from the World by God

3.     The Pilgrims and Puritans Came to America for Religious Freedom

4.     America is God’s New Israel

5.     The Revolutionary War Was Decreed By God

6.     The Early Clergy Played a Major Rome in Promoting Liberty

7.     The Declaration of Independence is America’s Spiritual Manifesto

8.     State Constitutions Are Key to Preserving Liberty

9.     The U. S. Constitution is an Inspired Document

10.     The Federalist is America’s Political Bible

11.     The Bill of Rights is America’s Ten Commandments

12.     George Washington’s Farewell Address Was Inspired by God

13.     The Free Market System Guarantees Economic Liberty

14.     The Civil War Was God’s Retribution Upon the Nation for Slavery

15.     America’s Greatest Exports are Freedom and Christianity

16.     The Holy Bible is the Foundation of Reality

17.     Agnosticism and Atheism Arose in Europe

18.     School of Higher Criticism Is Seeking To Destroy the King James Version of the Holy Bible

19.     Charles Lyell Sought to Replace Biblical Catastrophism

20.     Charles Darwin Sought to Replace the Holy Bible

21.     Theistic Evolution is Being Used to Deceive and Seduce the Clergy

22.     Intellectuals Have Embraced Darwinism Throughout the World

23.     Secularism Has Taken Over Education in America

24.     Secularism Has Taken Over Government and the Courts

25.     Secularism Has Taken Over the Media

26.     Secularism Has Taken Over the Foundations

27.     A New Secular Religion Has Arisen in America

28.     A New Secular State Has Arisen in America

29.     Secularism is Seeking to Replace Christianity in America

     No doubt the treatment plan devised by the extraordinary team of doctors at the Mayo Clinic will help the VIP to regain his memory in the not too distant future. By the way, the name of the person on the medical chart was simply listed as Uncle Sam.

     The medical team has asked the author to prepare a series of papers on various subjects to help their patient regain his memory. The chapters in this volume were prepared at the doctor’s request.

Part II—The Loss of Memory is Devastating for a Nation

     The loss of memory is as important for nations as it is for individuals. Arthur M. Schlesinger, writing in a famous treatise entitled, The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multi-cultural Society stated:

     “Writing history is an old and honorable profession with distinctive standards and purposes. The historian’s goals are accuracy, analysis, and objectivity in the reconstruction of the past. But history is more than an academic discipline up there in the stratosphere. It also has its own role in the future of nations.

     “For history is to the nation rather as memory is to the individual. As an individual deprived of memory becomes disoriented and lost, not knowing where he has been or where he is going, so a nation denied a conception of its past will be disabled in dealing with its present and its future. As the means of defining national identity, history becomes a means of shaping history.

     “The writing of history then turns from a moderation into a weapon. ‘Who controls the past controls the future,’ runs the Party slogan in George Orwell’s 1984; ‘who controls the present controls the past.’” (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1992, pp. 46-47.)

     History is a guide to the past, but just as important, it is a guide to the future. In the hands of the ruling elite, history becomes a weapon. “The first step in liquidating a people is to erase its memory. Destroy its books, its culture, its history. Then have someone write new books, manufacture a new culture, invent a new history. Before long the nation will begin to forget what it is and what it was.” (A historian in Milan Kundera’s, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting. Quoted in Schlesinger, p. 52.)

     The American people have lost their institutional memory of the Christian heritage that guided the nation for nearly 300 years. From 1620 until 1920 the people believed that America had a divine origin and destiny. That divinely decreed destiny was of America was to serve as the cradle of liberty and the home of Christianity.

     In 1920 a new civil religion emerged in America and it quickly began attacking Christianity. Know as secularism, this new belief system was based upon agnosticism and atheism. The Bible was replaced with the Origin of Man by Charles Darwin. An ideological civil war erupted between those who believe in God and those who believe in the evolutionary development of man from a single cell through natural processes. In this new secular religion there is no God and no Creator. There is no divine rights of man and no spark of divinity in man.

     The proponents of secularism quickly began to takeover the institutions of learning in America. First, the universities were seized and Christians were told to vacate the premises and not to return. Next, the philosophy of secularism began to trickle down into the public school system and gradually the entire nation was indoctrinated in a new religion without their even knowing it. They succeeded in removing Christianity from education in America through a strategy known as gradualism.

     Once they gained control of the educational system in America, the secularists targeted other institutions such as government, media, publishing houses, foundations, courts, and corporations. A new religion replaced Christianity and America became a secular state.

     From 1920 until 2004 Christianity has been in retreat. It is time to halt the growth of secularism in America. It is time to restore the Christian religion in America. It is time to take a stand in the war between good and evil, right and wrong, light and darkness, freedom and tyranny. It is time to stand firmly in the defense of Christianity and its noble principles and doctrines. It is time to defend the founding fathers and the founding documents of America. It is time to defend the divinity of Jesus Christ as the Savior and Redeemer of the world. It is time to accept the Holy Bible as the Word of God and adhere to its inspired messages and declarations. It is time to say, enough is enough. It is time to repeat the cry once heard throughout the American colonies, “Don’t Tread on me.” It is time to say no to the basic principles, philosophies and beliefs of secularism which are destroying the heart and soul of American society and the world at large.

*******

Part I — The Rise of God’s New Israel in America

Chapter 1 — The Holy Bible Is the Word of God

Part A — A Testimony of God and His Son Jesus Christ

     The King James Version of the Holy Bible contains the mind and will of God and His Son Jesus Christ as given to the prophets and apostles under the guidance and inspiration of heaven and the Holy Ghost.

     This sacred book of scripture has had a greater impact upon the inhabitants of the earth than any other book ever printed. There is a magical quality about its verses. The more you read them the greater insights you gain and the more clearly you see the world around you. The writings of the Holy Prophets reveal the richness of the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Old Testament

     There are twelve important reasons to study the Old Testament.

     1. It bears a powerful testimony concerning the existence of God the Eternal Father.

     2. It reveals that God created the earth as the future home of His spirit sons and daughters.

     3. It reveals that God placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden and that the partaking of the forbidden fruit brought about the Fall thereby introducing mortality and death into the world.

     4. It reveals the importance of making and keeping covenants with God.

     5. It reveals the lineage of the House of Israel and the important role which it would play in the development of events on earth.

     6. It reveals that God is the author of liberty and that God has given each person on earth the opportunity to choose between good and evil, right and wrong, light and darkness and freedom and tyranny.

     7. It reveals that God intervenes directly in the affairs of individuals and nations when the situation demands such intervention.

     8. It reveals the blessing gains through obedience to the commandments of God and the gospel and the consequences of disobedience and rebellion.

     9. It reveals the existence of Lucifer, the fallen angel who rebelled, along with a third of the hosts of heaven, against God the Eternal Father and His son Jesus Christ.

     10. It contains the prophecies and warnings given to the world through the inspired prophets of God.

     11. It reveals that the God of the Old Testament is really Jesus Christ.

     12. It reveals that Jesus would be born in Bethlehem and that He would complete His foreordained role as the Savior and Redeemer of the world thus bringing to pass the great Atonement and Resurrection.

New Testament

     There are twelve important reasons to study the New Testament.

     1. It bears a powerful testimony that Jesus is the Christ, the Savior and Redeemer of the world.      

     2. It reveals that Jesus is the Son of God or the Man of Holiness.

     3. It reveals the early life and ministry of Jesus Christ.

     4. It reveals the important role which John the Baptist played in baptizing the Son of God.

     5. It reveals the organization of the Church of Jesus Christ.

     6. It reveals the calling of Apostles to bear testimony of the Savior.

     7. It reveals the teachings of the Savior and the principles of the gospel He taught to the people in Israel.

     8. It reveals the importance of obedience to gospel of Jesus Christ.

     9. It reveals important prophecies concerning the last days.

     10. It reveals the terrible agony the Savior went through in the Garden of Gethsemane and upon the cross as He atoned for the sins of all mankind.

     11. It reveals that the infinite and eternal Atonement is complete.

     12. It reveals that Jesus was resurrected and ascended into heaven after spending forty days with His apostles, friends and saints.

     Great personal joy, happiness, peace and satisfaction is gained when you spend a few minutes or more each day reading and pondering the King James Version of the Holy Scriptures and the inspired messages contained in the sacred pages.

Part B —The Bible—A Sealed Book

     Regrettably, to most people on earth the Holy Bible is a sealed book. It is sealed not by Deity, but by man because they refuse to open its pages and drink from the fountain of pure knowledge and truth.

     The Holy Bible has two seals upon it—the seal of ignorance and the seal of intellectuality. During the Dark Ages only a few people had access to the Holy Scriptures. During this time a number of false doctrines were introduced to the world by uninspired priests and clergy. The Renaissance and the Reformation broke the chains of darkness that had enslaved the world.

     The translation and publication of the King James Version of the Bible in 1611 is a turning point in world history. Now the people of the earth could read the Holy Scriptures for themselves and not be dependent upon a few elite priests or clergy to tell them what was contained in the sacred books of the Holy Bible.

     The second seal upon the Holy Bible is the seal of intellectuality. So-called intellectuals and scholars have published their own private interpretations and translations of the Holy Scriptures and mislead millions of people throughout the ages. The apostle Paul warned that the inhabitants of the earth that "the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils:

     "Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron.... (1 Timothy 4: 1-2.)

     Paul also warned us to, "Beware lest any man spoil you through vain philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments the world, and not after Christ. (Colossians 2: 18.)

The School of Higher Criticism Emerges

     One group of so-called intellectuals have spent their entire lives attacking the Holy Bible. They are proponents of a school of philosophy called "higher criticism." Their mission is to destroy a belief in God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Bible.

     The Holy Bible was prepared by God throughout the ages for the benefit and enlightenment of each and every person on earth. A careful study of its sacred pages will yield indescribable blessings for the person who prayerfully ponders and applies the teachings contained therein in their daily lives.

     The publication of the Holy Bible was an important step in the establishment of the United States of America.

The Importance of the King James Version of the Holy Bible

     Since there are no original copies of the actual manuscripts which contain the writings of the prophets and apostles in the Holy Bible, it is very important which Holy Bible we use for daily study.

     The only copies that we have today are copies of copies. There are two Greek texts which most translations are based. However, one set of the translations was carefully edited and secularized by ancient scribes, monks, priests, etc. They removed practically all the references to the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ. The other copy, while not perfect, contains the verses which clearly outline the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ.

     The latter copies of the Greek manuscripts were used by the translators of the King James Version of the Holy Bible. It should be utilized above all others major translations at this time if you want to read the words of Jesus, his prophets and apostles. These manuscripts closely resemble the original manuscripts.

     The importance of adherence to the King James Version of the Holy Bible cannot be stressed enough. All other translations, especially those made since the 1700s have been made by scholars, who are not authorized to change or alter or edit the Word of God as it was given by inspiration to the prophets and apostles of old.

*******

Chapter 2—America Was Kept Hidden from the World by God

     One of the key players in the great drama unfolding throughout Europe in the late 1400s was Christopher Columbus, a man of God. He firmly believed that he had been divinely called to discover a new land, help spread the Christian religion throughout the New World and help redeem Jerusalem before the second coming of Jesus Christ. He was a man of vision, courage, faith and determination who sought to do the will of God each day.

     Columbus wrote that, "At a very early age I began to navigate upon the seas, which I continued to this day.... Such has been my interest for more than forty years ....I prayed to the most merciful Lord concerning my desire, and he gave me the spirit and the intelligence for it. (Delno C. West and August Kling, The Libro de las Profecias of Christopher Columbus. Gainesville Florida: University of Florida Press, 1991, p. 105.)

     We do not know the exact date he was born, but it was probably in the year 1451 in Genoa, Italy. Columbus's name means Christ-bearer.

A Servant of the Most High God

     After his discovery of the New World, Columbus always signed his name on important documents with these words: "I am a servant of the Most High Savior, O Christ, Mary, Joseph! Christ-bearer." His father was a master weaver and merchant. Columbus "learned his letters at a tender age and studied enough at the University of Pavia to understand the geographers, of whose teaching he was very fond. (Ferdinand Columbus, The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by His Son Ferdinand, Translated by Benjamin Keen. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1959, p.9)

     According to Las Casas, a priest and historian, "In matters of the Christian religion, without doubt he was a Catholic and of great devotion .... He observed the fasts of the Church most faithfully, confessed and made communion often, read the canonical offices like a churchman or member of the religious order, hated blasphemy and profane swearing." (Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1942, Vol.1, p. 63.)

Columbus Desires to Share the Spread the Gospel of Jesus Christ

     Columbus possessed a deep desire to carry the message of the gospel of Jesus Christ to the inhabitants of the New World. La Casas wrote, "He was extraordinary zealous for the divine service; he desired and was eager for the conversion of these people (Indians), and that in every region the faith of Jesus Christ be planted and enhanced ... ever holding great confidence in divine providence." (Morison 1:63-64.) Indeed, the prime motivation for Columbus's desire to sail across the ocean was to spread the Christian religion throughout the New World.

     During the 15th century two important events occurred in the world that would help shape the mission of Columbus. The Ottoman Empire was expanding and it captured Constantinople in 1453. It had been a Christian city and the European sea merchants were fearful that it would negatively affect trade. After seizing Constantinople, the Turks expanded into the Aegean and Adriatic Seas and eventually captured Otranto, an Italian port city. In 1475 the Turks captured Caffa, the last Italian trading post in the Black Sea.

     By the time of 1520 the Ottoman Empire had conquered Palestine, Syria, Africa and parts of Central Europe. The expansion of the Ottoman Empire greatly affected the Italian sea merchants who had previously traded in the highly profitable spice and aromatic markets of Eastern Mediterranean. It is no wonder that navigators began to look for alternative routes to the spice markets.

The Gutenberg Bible Was Printed in 1456

     The second major event that paved the way for Columbus's journey was the invention of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg in about 1455. The Gutenberg Bible was printed in 1456, a remarkable feat at that time. After the publication of the Holy Bible Columbus began an earnest study of its sacred pages and drew inspiration and courage from its verses.

     Christopher Columbus was a skillful sailor who took his profession very seriously. Since Genoa was a busy port with a deep harbor, ships, merchants and sailors crammed the busy street daily. He longed for the sea and spend his life in and around the ocean. In 1501 he wrote a letter to Ferdinand and Isabella where he stated, "I have passed more than forty years in this business and have traveled to every place where there is navigation up to the present time." (John Boyd Thatcher, Christopher Columbus, His Life, His Work, His Remains. New York: AMS Press, Inc. 1967, Volume 1: p. 12.) From the time of an early age, the young sailor was actively involved in merchant sea trading.

God Saves Columbus from Drowning at Sea

     In May of 1476 Columbus decided to sail with a Genoese merchant fleet heading for England. He was desirous to sail on the Atlantic Ocean. The fleet met with good weather until August 13'h when French war ships launched a surprise attack as the fleet sailed near the coast of Portugal. Seven ships were lost and hundreds of sailors drowned. The sip which Columbus was sailing caught fire from the explosions and the crew had to abandon ship. At the time the ship was approximately six miles off shore. Columbus grabbed an oar floating in the water and made his way to shore.

     Ferdinand, the son of Christopher Columbus believed that his father's life had been spared by God for a greater cause. He wrote that, "it pleased God, who was preserving him for greater things, to give him strength to reach the shore." (Ferdinand Columbus, p. 14.) And so it was. Providence had intervened and saved the life the famous sailor who was destined to discover the new world. It appears that it was important for Columbus to be in Portugal for a season for reasons known only at the time by God.

     Once on shore Columbus made his way to Lisbon, Portugal where he entered the map-making business with a group of Genoese merchants. At the time Lisbon was the world center for discovery. Prince Henry the Navigator had established the world's leading research center for oceanic travel and exploration. The merchants were attempting to reach India and Asia and some of the world's leading sailors, explorers, map-makers and businessmen were located in Lisbon. At this time Portugal was Europe's leading maritime kingdom.

     Once in Lisbon the young sailor yearned to return to the sea and made trips to Iceland and the Madeira Islands. He was expanding his knowledge of the Atlantic Ocean.

Columbus Marries Felipa Perestrelloe Moniz

     As with nearly all young men, Columbus met a beautiful woman and fell in love. In approximately 1479 he married Felipa Perestrelloe Moniz, the daughter of Bartholomew Perestrello, a Portuguese noble. Once again the hand of Providence is manifest. Ferdinand, Columbus's son, recorded that his father "behaved very honorably and a man of handsome presence and one who never turned from the path of honesty, ...(Felipa) had such conversation and friendship with him that she became his wife." (Ferdinand Columbus, p. 14.) The young couple had met at Catholic mass, a lesson for all young men looking for a bride.

Access to the Royal Courts of Europe

     Felipa was from a family of nobility and their marriage would allow Columbus access to the royal courts of Europe where one day soon he would begin presenting his plan to the monarchs of Spain to finance his voyage to the New World. Without the help of Felipa, Columbus would never have gained the access of the royal courts of Europe. The young couple lived on the Madeiras Islands for a few years until Columbus was prompted to return to the sea for his mission had not yet been competed. During the time they were living on the islands, Columbus sailed to the Gold Coast of Africa. They had a son which they named Diego.

     Las Casas noted that with the completion of this trip, " Columbus was the most outstanding sailor in the world, versed like no other in the art of navigation, for which Providence chose him to accomplish the most outstanding feat ever accomplished in the world until now." (Bartolome de Las Casas, History of the Indies. Translated and Edited by Andree Collard, Edited by Silvio A. Bedini, New York: Harper and Row, 1971, p. 17.)

A Continent Kept Hidden from the World

     Columbus was now ready to begin planning an expedition that would thrust the name of Christ-bearer into the pages of world history until the end of time. He called his bold plan the "Enterprise of the Indies.” It was his dream to reach the Indies by sailing west instead of east. Once again Providence had a surprise for Columbus. He would not reach the Indies, but instead he would be guided to a New World, a continent that had been kept hidden by Providence for centuries to prevent European powers from overrunning it and undermining the future plans of God.

     At the time of Columbus no one in Europe was aware of the North American continent. It was deliberately kept hidden from the world so the purposes of God concerning the last days could be brought out. And Christopher Columbus was a key player in the great drama being orchestrated by Providence. America was being prepared as a special inheritance for a special people who would establish the mightiest nation on earth. The hand of God in the discovery of the Americas was clearly evident through the life of Christopher Columbus.

God Kept America Hidden From the World

     It is now clear that God deliberately kept the Americas hidden until after the breakup of the Roman Empire into various kingdoms that flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe. Over 250 years later, another Catholic by the name of Alexis de Tocqueville, a prominent Frenchman would write that, "When the earth was given to men by the creator, the earth was inexhaustible; but men were weak and ignorant, and when they had learned to take advantage of the treasures which it contained, they already covered its surface and were soon obligated to earn by the sword an asylum for repose and freedom. Just then North America was discovered, as if it had been kept in reserve by the Deity and had just risen from the waters of the Deluge." (Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America. New York: Random House, 1991 edition, Volume I, p. 291.)

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Chapter 3—The Pilgrims and Puritans Came to America for Religious Freedom

     During the Middle Ages the monarchs and priests had joined in an evil alliance to keep the people ignorant so they would remain in a state of bondage and slavery. That is one reason they opposed the printing of the Holy Bible and that is why they fought the reformers who challenged the tyranny of the Old World. While Christopher Columbus was busy opening the New World, the Lord was preparing a new people to inhabit a new continent that would be dedicated to political, economic and religious liberty.

     The noble and valiant effort of such men as John Wycliffe and William Tyndale helped prepare the way for the great restoration of freedom that lay ahead. They were raised up by God to play a critical role at a crucial time in world history. The shackles of the Old World were being broken up by the Lord and those whom He raised up to establish liberty.

     Upon the return of Columbus to Spain news of the discovery of a new world quickly spread throughout the ports of Europe. New voyages set off for the New World. One group that sought to flee from the despotic rule of the kings of Europe and England at the time was referred to as Pilgrims.

     Spain, Portugal, France and England were the principal powers involved in the discovery and exploration of the Americas. All were ruled by despotic monarchs. Those who fled England and Europe at the time were indeed fleeing from captivity and bondage.

Pilgrims Seek Religious Liberty

     The Pilgrims consisted of about one hundred men, women and children. The small company that came to America was not seeking gold and silver. Instead they were seeking religious liberty. They simply wanted to be free to worship God according to their own conscience. They had left the Church of England and were called separatists. They felt that the Church of England when it broke off from Rome had retained certain doctrines and rituals which they felt were wrong.

     At this time the nations of Europe were under state religions. The religious authorities strictly enforced the creeds upon the people in order to preserve the control of the Church of Rome over the continent. Although England had broken free and established the Church of England, it was still a state religion and the people were not free to worship as they wanted. To disagree with the king on religious matters was akin to treason and the people were burned at the stake for heresy.

     In the case of James I of England, he began his reign by declaring that the people would confirm to the Church of England or he would run them out of England. The separatists (or Pilgrims) actually fled England to escape imprisonment and death. They went to live in the Holland in 1607 and 1608. The separatists stayed there only for a short time.

Of Plymouth Plantation

     One of the remarkable documents of this period is the account written by the first governor in New England. His name was William Bradford and his wonderful chronicle of the Pilgrims flight to America is recorded in the famous treatise entitled Of Plymouth Plantation. Concerning the flight of the Pilgrims to Holland, he recorded: "it is well know unto the godly and judicious, how ever since the first breaking our of the light of the gospel in our honourable nation of England, (which was the first of nations whom the Lord adorned therewith after the gross darkness of popery which had covered and overspread the Christian world), what wars and oppositions ever since, Satan hath raised, maintained and continued against the Saints, from time to time, in one sort or other. Sometimes by bloody death and cruel torments; other whiles imprisonments, banishments and other hard usages; as being loath his kingdom should go down, the truth prevail and the churches of God revert to their ancient purity and recover their primitive order, liberty and beauty. (William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647. Samuel Eliot Morison, editor. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952, I, p. 3.)

Pilgrims Encounter a Fierce Storm on the Way to Holland

     It seems that the Pilgrims were destined to play an important role in the unfolding drama of the establishment of America. Bradford records that a fierce storm, not unlike the one that nearly destroyed Columbus on his voyage back from the New World nearly drowned the entire congregation before they reached Holland. Bradford tells us that, "They endured a fearful storm at sea, being fourteen days or more before they arrived at their port; in seven whereof they neither saw sun, moon nor stars, and were driven near the coast of Norway; the mariners themselves often despairing of life, and once with shrieks and cries gave over all, as if the ship had been foundered in the sea and they sinking without recovery. But when man's hope and help wholly failed, the Lord's power and mercy appeared in their recovery; for the ship rose again and gave the mariners courage again to manager her.... When the water ran into their mouths and ears and the mariners cried out, ‘We sink, we sink!’ they cried (if not with miraculous, yet with a great height or degree of divine faith), ‘Yet Lord Thou canst save! Yet Lord Thou canst save!’ Upon which the ship did not only recover, but shortly after the violence of the storm began to abate, and the Lord filled their afflicted minds with comforts as everyone cannot understand, and in the end brought them to their desired have, where the people came flocking, admiring their deliverance." (William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, II, p. 13.)

     While they were in Holland many people fled England and came over to live in the new congregation. Bradford records that, "So they grew in knowledge and other gifts and graces of t he Spirit of God, and lived together in peace and love and holiness and many came unto them from divers parts of England, so as they grew a great congregation. (William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, III, pp. 17-18.)

     However, when they saw that their children were being drawn too much into the Dutch world, they decided to seek refuge elsewhere. According to Bradford, "The place they had thoughts on was some of those vast and unpeopled countries of America, which are fruitful and fit for habitation, being devoid of all civil inhabitants." (William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, IV, p. 25.)

Separatists Decide To Seek a New Home in America

     In 1617 the separatists or Pilgrims decided to seek a new home in America. They were not unaware of the dangers ahead. Bradford tell us that, "It was granted the dangers were great, but not desperate. The difficulties were many, but not invincible. For though there were many of them likely, yet they were not certain.

It might be sundry of the things feared might never befall; others by provident care and the use of the good means might in a great measure be prevented; and all of them, through the help of God, by fortitude and patience, might either be borne or overcome." (William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, IV, p. 27.)

     The separatists decided to colonize the northern part of Virginia and obtained a patent or land grant from the Virginia Company in London. The separatists formed a company and obtained the funds for the voyage from merchants in London. They entered into a seven year agreement with the Virginia Company and agreed to supply the company with valuable goods from the New World in exchange for food and supplies from London.

Prayer and Fasting Before the Voyage

     Before the new Pilgrims set sail on September 6, 1620 for the New World they gathered for prayer and fasting. Bradford stated: "So being ready to depart, they had a day of solemn humiliation, their pastor taking his text from Ezra viii. 21: ‘And there at the river by Ahava, I proclaimed a fast, that we might be humble ourselves before our God, and seek of him a right way for us, and for our children, and for all our substance.' Upon which he spent a good part of the day very profitably and suitable to their present occasion; the rest of the time was spent in pouring out prayers to the Lord with great fervency, mixed with abundance of tears.... So they left that goodly and pleasant city which had been their resting place near twelve years; but they know they were pilgrims, and looked not so much on those things, but lifted up their eyes to the heavens, their dearest county, and quieted their spirits." (William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, VII, p. 47.)

The Voyage of the Mayflower

     The separatists were originally planning on sailing to America in two ships, the Speedwell and the Mayflower. However, the Speedwell started taking on water and the ship turned around and came back to port. All of the passengers (44 of the 102 passengers were separatists) traveled on board the Mayflower.

     The Pilgrims set out for America seeking freedom of religion and a new place for their congregation and families. Since they were English, they were well aware of the difficult transition that England had made when it left Catholicism and formed the Church of England. This humble group of people willingly gave up their homes in England for the opportunity to experience freedom of religion. They did not feel that the Church of Rome or the Church of England had the right to use compulsion to force worship of God. They felt that worship of God should be voluntary and were willing to brave the elements of the New World in search of a better way. Their faith and resolved would be put to the test in America. They remembered the story of how Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego were cast into a fiery furnace for not following the Babylonian King. (See Daniel 3.) God had blessed them for their faithfulness and the Pilgrims felt that God was with them and would bless them too.

     The voyage to the New World on the Mayflower was perilous and the Pilgrims often wondered if they would reach the shores of America. However, Providence was watching over the small vessel just as He had watched over Columbus and his men earlier. And the one hundred and two people on the Mayflower knew that a Higher Power had delivered them safely to the New World. Bradford recorded that, "Being thus arrived in a good harbor, and brought safe to land, they fell upon their knees and blessed the God of Heaven who had brought them over the vast and furious ocean, and delivered them from all the perils and miseries thereof." (William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, IX, p. 61.)

     The separatists were scheduled to land in Northern Virginia, however, a storm blew them off course and they ended up at Cape Cod. In light of the patent with the Virginia Company the captain of the Mayflower decided to sail southward. They soon encountered large waves and shoals and they returned to Cape Cod. From there they began surveying the area and finally decided to locate at Plymouth.

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Chapter 4 — The Rise of God’ New Israel in America

     In the 1630s new immigrants were flowing into America and a new nation was finally beginning to take shape. However, this nation was not like the nations of Europe who were ruled by elite financial oligarchies, Monarchial Kings and priests. America had a divine origin and destiny. It was designed by God to serve as the home of freedom, liberty and Christianity. The Pilgrims and Puritans had fled religious tyranny and oppression in England and Europe. They did not want to set up another Europe.

     The early Puritans set out to establish a system of government that would ensure that their rights, privileges and liberties were upheld and perpetuated. As each of the colonies came into existence they adopted charters, covenants and constitutions that furthered the development of self-government in America. Their laws were derived from the Holy Bible.

     After the Mayflower Compact, the Puritans produced another document that would revolutionize the New World. It was known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. A group of freemen gathered in New Haven, Connecticut on January 14, 163 9 and produced a constitution that would govern the new colony. The importance of this document lies in the fact that it acknowledged that the origin of civil government was derived from God. It is based upon the teachings of the Apostle Paul who wrote that, "Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, For there is no power but of the powers that be are ordained of God." (Romans 13: 1.)

Constitution of Connecticut

     The constitution of Connecticut stated:

     "I.     That the Scriptures hold forth a perfect rule for the direction and government of all men in all duties which they are to perform to God and men, as well in families and commonwealths as in matters of church.

     "II.     That as in matters which concerned the gathering and ordering of a church, so likewise in all public offices which concern civil order,—as the choice of magistrates and officers, making and repealing laws, dividing allotments of inheritance, and all things of like nature,—they would all be governed by those rules which the scripture held forth to them.

     "III.     That all those who had desired to be received free planters had settled in the plantation with a purpose, resolution, and desire that they might be admitted into church fellowship according to Christ.

     "IV. That all the free planters held themselves bound to establish such civil order as might best conduce to the securing of the purity and peace of the ordinance to themselves, and their posterity according to God." (Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. New Haven, Connecticut, 1639.)

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

     The General Court under the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was ordered to observe God's law: "That God's world should be the only rule for ordering the affairs of government in t his commonwealth." (Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. New Haven, Connecticut, 1639.) On September 30, 1648 the synod of the New England churches met at Cambridge, Massachusetts and outlined the nature of civil government, the functions of the civil magistrates and the duties of each of its citizens. The document stated:

     "I. God, the Supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under him, over the people, and for his own glory and the public good; and to this end hath armed them with the power of the sword for the defense and encouragement of them that do well, and for the punishment of evil-doers.

     "II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of magistrate when called there unto. In the management whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of the Commonwealth, so for that end they may lawfully now, under the New Testament, wage war upon just and necessary occasions.

     "III.. They who, upon pretence of Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful power, or the lawful exercises of it, resist the ordinances of God.... may be called to account and proceeded against by the censure of the church and by the power of the civil magistrate.

     "IV. It is the duty of the people to pray for magistrates, to honor their persons, to pay them tribute and other dues, to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority for conscience's sake. "'

     "Civil government on the basis of the Bible and free principles of a pure Christianity was not the only object that the Puritans had in view in coming to the New World. They had also the great and good end of extending and establishing the kingdom of Christ, and of bringing the whole continent under the reign of Christianity and filling it with its saving blessings"

     "In 1643, a confederation between the colonies of Massachusetts, New Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven was formed, in which it is affirmed that 'we all came into these parts of America with the same end and

aim, namely, to advance the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to enjoy the liberties thereof with purity and peace, and for preserving and propagating the truth and liberties of the gospel."

     Another colony which made an important contribution to the development of self-government in America was Pennsylvania. The colony was founded by William Penn. It was a proprietary colony and the English Crown has empowered him to govern it. Penn was very tolerant toward the religious views of others and was determined to establish a haven for those in Europe to escape the religious persecution and tyranny that existed in those countries.

William Penn's Frame of Government

     On April 25, 1682 Penn drafted the "Frame of Government" for the colony of Pennsylvania. It stated that, "all persons living in this province, who confess and acknowledge the One Almighty and Eternal God to be the Creator, Upholder, and Ruler of the world, and that hold themselves obligated in conscience to live peaceably and justly in civil society, shall in no wise be molested or prejudiced for their religious persuasion or practice, in matters of faith and worship; nor shall they be compelled at any time to frequent or maintain any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever." (Frame of Government, April 25, 1682.)

     The first legislative act in Pennsylvania outlined the purpose of civil government in the eyes of the Quakers. It stated that, "Whereas the glory of Almighty God and the good of mankind is the reason and end of government, and, therefore, government in itself is a venerable ordinance of God...." The act outlined that it was the purpose of the civil government to establish "laws as shall best preserve true Christian and civil liberty, in opposition to all unchristian, licentious, and unjust practices, whereby God may have his due, Caesar his due, and the people their due, from tyranny and oppression." (Legislative Act, Pennsylvania, December, 1682.)

     If you examine the statutes, charters, constitutions, laws and governing documents drafted by the Pilgrims and Puritans and those who settled each of the colonies from 1620 through 1776 there is a common thread that binds them all together. That tread is the Holy Bible. Although each of the colonies was founded by those with slightly different religious persuasions and viewpoints, they all looked to the Holy Bible for guidance and direction in formulating and administering their laws. They were all united in the belief that America had a divine origin and destiny. And they were all grateful to be apart of such a noble endeavor.

     The colonists endeavored to establish freedom and liberty throughout the colonies and to promote Christianity as the best hope for mankind. Those who lived in the colonies were avid students of the Bible. It was the one book that was read daily by almost everyone.

Prophecy on the Future of America

     In 1763 pastor Ebenezer Baldwin uttered a prophecy concerning the future of America. In a sermon he predicted that America would become "the Foundation of a great and mighty empire; the largest the world ever saw." This empire would "be founded on such Principles of Liberty and Freedom, both civil and religious, as never before took place in the world." He felt that America would become "the Principal Seat of the glorious kingdom, which Christ shall erect upon Earth in the latter days." (Harry S. Stout, New England Soul, p. 308.)

     If you study the letters, pamphlets, and books written between 1620 and 1776 you find a similar thread running throughout them. And once again that thread is the Holy Bible and its principles, doctrines, commandments, laws, ordinances and prophecies. The gospel of Jesus Christ is the guiding light of America. No other book was esteemed so much as the Holy Bible.

     America was discovered, settled and developed by those who adhered to the basic principles of Christianity and who took the Holy Bible as their guide in all things. America is a Christian nation. And the God of this land is Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Savior and Redeemer of the world.

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Chapter 5—The Revolutionary War Was Decreed By God

     From 1620 until the 1720s the colonies labored to develop a system of local self-government in order to preserve the blessings of liberty for themselves and their posterity. However, by 1750 the colonists became convinced that there was a conspiracy in operation to destroy their liberties. The British Crown was fearful that the colonies were becoming too powerful and sought ways to curtail that power and to stop the flood of immigration from England and parts of Europe.

     The British merchants realized that America could easily become the most prosperous nation on earth if its growth was not checked and controlled from London. They also realized that if America continued to grow and prosper that it would one day become the most powerful nation on earth. The British Empire began developing plans to subvert America and bring them into further subjection to Great Britain.

     The British Crown decided that it would begin tightening trade restriction on the colonies. From the British point of view the colonies were only useful if they were profitable. Trade between England and America was carefully designed to build and expand the British Empire. The colonies were being exploited and the colonists were beginning to feel the burden of building the British Empire and financing its war efforts with France and other enemies.

     The American colonies were considered the possessions of the Crown. The people in America were expected to ship raw materials to England in order for British industry to manufacture products that then would be sold back to the colonies. America's manufacturing and industrial base was still in its infancy state but it was beginning to grow.

     The Puritans discovered that it was cheaper to buy manufactured products made at home than pay for them to be imported from England. In addition, the American made products were often superior to those made by the British.

British Empire

     The British Empire operated under a set of monopoly trade laws. In fact that is why the elite financial oligarchies that have ruled Europe and Asia for centuries have used the Empire Model to control world trade and markets. So-called free trade, a pillar of the British Empire, is never free at all. The name is merely used to deceive people into supporting monopolies and cartels around the world. All wars between nations are economic in origin. They are really trade wars.

     The British Empire which was now spreading throughout the world was attempting to control world trade. The British merchants looked at America as a closed market which they could regulate in order to insure that the colonies sent raw materials to England and imported British manufactured goods.

     The colonists decided that enough is enough. It was a time to stop these unfair trade policies and develop America's manufacturing and industrial base so it could provide for the needs of the American people and export products throughout the world. Of course such a course of action would destroy the British Empire.

     The colonists believed that the Kings and Princes were merely the agents of the real powers which operate in secret behind the Monarchies and Crowns of Europe and the Empires in Asia. Policies are made by the Finance and Trade Ministers. A trade war was underway between the colonists and the British Empire. (See Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Harvard University Press. 1967.)

     To make matters worse for the British, the colonists were building bigger, better and faster shipping boats than England and the daring Americans had no qualm about penetrating British markets around the world. The British really hated New England. These colonies were the heart of the Puritans and Protestant colonies in America. It was in New England that the resistance movement would fester and grow into a revolution. A group of mighty patriots were being raised up in New England to challenge the giant British Empire.

Sons of Liberty Formed

     The inspired oratory of James Otis motivated Samuel Adams to form the famous Sons of Liberty in Boston. The Sons of Liberty would become the central guidance system and backbone of the American Revolution. Samuel Adams and James Otis were brilliant organizers and motivators.

     Samuel Adams was a member of the Congregational Church and held prayer meetings daily at his home. He would become the Father of the American Revolution.

     Soon Sons of Liberty began springing up in every town in New England and the surrounding colonies. In June of 1765 Samuel Adams and James Otis sent a circular letter to leaders in the colonies inviting them to sent delegates to a Congress which was scheduled to convene in New York in October. Nine of the 13 colonies sent 27 delegates. It became known as the Stamp Act Congress. The delegates passed a series of resolutions demanding that Parliament rescind the Stamp Act. They also reminded the Crown of the colonies' basic rights such as no taxation without representation.

     This was a monumental moment for the colonies. In fact it was a turning point in the American Rebellion. From the time the Congress adjourned the leaders of the colonies who favored independence began working closely together. The Sons of Liberty became a world class revolutionary band of freedom-fighters dedicated to preserving American liberties and opposing the tyranny of the British Empire and Crown.

     In 1766 Parliament repealed the Stamp Act. However, it was too little and too late. The fires of the American Revolution were starting to burn brightly all over New England.

Townshend Act

     In June of 1767 Parliament passed the Townshend Act which placed high duties once again on English products being imported into America. It only added more wood to the revolutionary fire that was already burning.

     Parliament also passed the Declaratory Act which stated the powers of Parliament were not in any way limited in regard to the colonies. It boldly declared that Parliament had the "full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the

Crown of Great Britain, in cases whatsoever." (Declaratory Act.)

     On October 1, 1768 two regiments of British soldiers arrived and were stationed in Boston. They were soon joined by two more regiments. The Crown was beginning its move to strike at the heart of the American Rebellion, the town of Boston. The message was loud and clear. Either the colonies submit to all of Parliament's Acts and become completely subservient to London, or they would be forced by arms to do so.

The Land of America Is a Gift from Heaven

     The Sons of Liberty organized a boycott of all British imports. In the meantime the New York Gazette published an article by one the leading aristocratic families in the colonies. William Livingston wrote: "Courage Americas ... the finger of God points out a mighty empire to your sons.... the land we possess is a gift of Heaven to our fathers. Divine Providence seems to have decreed it to our latest posterity....The day dawns in which the foundation of this mighty empire is to be laid by the establishment of a regular American Constitution. All that has hitherto been done seem to be little besides this collection of materials for the construction of this glorious fabric.' Tis time to put them together. ... Our growth is so vast that before seven years roll over our heads the first stone must be laid—Peace or war: famine or plenty; poverty or affluence.... What an era this is to America; and how loud the call to violence and activity.!" (New York Gazette)

     The Sons of Liberty had a mighty challenge to persuade the leading citizens of the colonies to support their cause. However, the article by Livingston went a long way to persuading them to join the battle for liberty. He was soon joined by other leading citizens of the colonies.

A Farmer's Letter

     During the winter of 1767-1768 a prominent lawyer from Pennsylvania wrote a series of letters which were published in newspapers throughout the colonies. They were compiled into a pamphlet entitled, "A Farmer's Letter to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies." John Dickinson outlined the natural rights of the colonists in these words: "Our vigilance and our union are success and safety. Our negligence and our division are distress and death. Let us consider ourselves as men—freemen—Christian freemen—separated from the world, and firmly bound together by the same rights, interests and dangers...

     Let these truths be indelibly impressed on our minds—that we cannot be happy without being free—that we cannot be free without being secure in our property, if without our consent others, may as by right, take it away—that taxes imposed on us by Parliament do thus take it away—that duties laid for the sole purpose of raising money are taxes—that attempts to lay such duties should be instantly and firmly opposed—that this opposition can never be effectual unless it is the united effort of the provinces.

     "The belief is these truths, I verily think, my countrymen, is indispensably necessary to your happiness. I bespeech you, therefore, teach them diligently to your children, and talk of them when you sit in your houses, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise up....

     "Prosperity does not depend on ministerial favors doled out to particular provinces. They form one political body, of which each colony is a member. Their happiness is founded on their constitution, and is to be promoted by preserving their constitution in unabated vigor, throughout every part. A spot, a speck of decay, however small the limb on which it appears, and however remote it may seem from the vitals, should be alarming...

Slavery is Ever Preceded by Sleep

     "Let us take care of our rights, and we therein take care of our prosperity.... Slavery is ever preceded by sleep.... If we are not affected by any reverence for the memory of our ancestors who transmitted to us that freedom in which they had been blessed—if we are not animated by any regard for posterity, to whom, by the most sacred obligations, we are bound to deliver down the invaluable inheritance, then indeed any minister, or any tool of a minister, or any creature of a tool of a minister, or any lower instrument of administration, if lower there is a personage whom it may be dangerous to offend....

     "Whatever kind of minister he is that attempts to innovate a single iota in the privileges of these colonies,

him I hope you will undauntedly oppose.... On such emergencies you may surely, without presumption, believe that Almighty God Himself will down upon your righteous contest with gracious approbation. You will be a band of brothers, cemented by the dearest ties, and strengthened with inconceivable supplies of force and constancy, by that sympathetic ardor, which animates good men, confederated in a single cause.... You are assigned by Divine Providence in the appointed order of things, the protection of unborn ages, whose fate depends on your virtue." (John Dickinson, Pamphlet.)

     While the lawyers use logic to appeal to the educated in the colonies, Samuel Adams developed the emotional side of the argument for liberty. He designed a number of symbols to stir the hearts of the emerging patriots. The Liberty Tree is one of the most famous symbols in American History. The large elm was located in the Boston Common and provided an excellent opportunity for daily protests against British tax collectors and custom agents. Effigies of these officials were hung from the tree and lanterns were hung from the branches to show the colonies the way to liberty.

Patriotic Song

     Adams asked John Dickinson to compose a patriotic song for the protesters. He composed the following words:

                    Come join hand in hand, brave Americans all;

                    And rouse your bold hearts at fair Liberty's call

                    No tyrannous acts shall suppress your just claim;

                    Or stain your dishonor America's name.

                    In freedom we're born and in freedom we'll live

                    Our purses are ready

                    Steady, Friends, steady

                    Not as slaves, but as freemen our money we'll give

                    Then join in hand brave Americans all;

                    By united we stand, by dividing we fall.

                    To die we can bear, but to serve we disdain,

                    For shame is to freemen more dreadful that pain.

                                   —(John Dickinson, Song)

     James Otis and Samuel Adams began a concerted effort to gather key merchants, shop owners, ship builders, lawyers and prominent citizens to the cause of liberty. John Hancock was one of Boston's wealthiest merchants. The British Crown believed that he was one of the most dangerous men in New England. Why? It was because he the chief financier of the Sons of Liberty and the chief financier of the American Rebellion and soon was to become the chief financier of the American Revolution.

Liberty Tree

     Adams and Otis kept up a steady parade of agitation before the Liberty Tree to the consternation of British officials in New England who were sending intelligence reports on the activities of Hancock, Adams, Otis and other patriotic leaders to London. The battle lines were being clearly drawn. Providence had raised up a mighty group of men to fight for liberty.

     John Hancock's famous sloop was named Liberty and one day while in the Boston Harbor British Commissioner of Customs arrested him for open defiance of British authority. Hancock was falsely charged with smuggling. The British were attempting to stop the financing of the Sons of Liberty. Hancock was saved by a

so-called mob of friendly supporters. They also caught two British officials and gave them a taste of American street fighting. Joseph Harrison and Benjamin Hallowell, the two British officials were released and quickly retired from the British service.

     Upon seeing the streets full of protestors, the British quickly dropped their alleged case against Hancock. The war was underway in all but name only.

     General Thomas Gage who was in Boston with the British troops encouraged London to move quickly against Hancock and the Sons of Liberty.

     The Boston Gazette quickly wrote an editorial which stated that, "If an army should be sent to reduce us to slavery, we will put our lives in our hands and cry to the Judge of the earth.... Behold how they come to cast us out of this possession which Thou hast given us to inherit. Help us Lord, our God, for we rest on Thee." (Boston Gazette.)

The Boston Massacre

     On March 5, 1770 Parliament repealed the Townsend Act. On the same day in New England there were street protests and confrontations between citizens of Boston and British Troops stationed in the city. It has been snowing during the day and in the evening a group of young people began hurling snow balls at the troops. Angry words filled the air and several soldiers gathered to help their besieged colleague. A fight broke out between the soldiers and the young protestors. One of the soldiers fired his musket, but he missed the young men. Another soldier fired his musket and hit a young man named Sam Gray. Soon the soldiers were firing their muskets and another young man named Crispus Attucks, a black man was killed. When the smoke finally cleared the area, three Bostonians were dead and two lay mortally wounded.

     News of the event spread like wildfire throughout the city and countryside. The tragic event was called the Boston Massacre. Cries of protest were heard throughout the colonies and the Sons of Liberty distributed leaflets and pamphlets on the tragic incident. They attacked the British occupation of Boston and the British army was forced to withdraw from the city to prevent further bloodshed and the start of a war.

     The Sons of Liberty began an even more concerted effort to root the British out of New England. The patriot leaders were well aware that there was a concerted effort underway to enslave the colonies and destroy their religious liberty and political liberty. They believed that the British Crown and British Merchants were involved a conspiracy to strip the colonies of their hard earned liberties and place them in bondage again. The Sons of Liberty were determined that these conspirators would not succeed, even if it meant war with the most powerful nation one earth. (See Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Harvard University Press. 1967.)

     A Boston Town Meeting in 1770 reported that, "A series of occurrences, many recent events, ... afford great reason to believe that a deep-laid and desperate plan of imperial despotism has been laid, and partly executed, for the extinction of civil liberty...." (Report of Town Meeting, 1770.)

     John Adams, the cousin of Samuel Adams had written earlier that, "There seems to be a direct and formal design on foot to enslave all America. This, however, must be done by degree. The first step that is intended seems to be an entire subversion of the whole system of our fathers by the introduction of the canon and feudal law into America.". (Works, 111, p. 464.)

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Chapter 6—The Early Clergy Played a Mayor Role in Promoting Liberty

     From the days of William Bradford and the arrival of the Pilgrims and Puritans on the shores of the New World, the sermon has played a key role in shaping the minds of men. In America the sermon played a prominent role in shaping the future leaders of America and instilling in them a sense of America's divine origin and destiny.

     Harry S. Stout tells us that, "The sermon stood alone in local New England contexts as the only regular (at lest weekly) medium of communication. As a channel of information, it combined religious, educational, and journalistic functions, and supplied all the key terms necessary to understand existence in this world and the next.

As the only event in public assembly that regularly brought the entire community together, it also represented the central ritual of social order and control. Seldom, if ever before, did so many people hear the same message of purpose and direction over so long a period of time as did the New England `Puritans.'

     "The seventeenth-century founders of New England set out to create a unique and self-perpetuating `people of the Word,' and by extending the sermon to all significant facets of life—social and political, as well as religious—they achieved exactly that. Throughout the colonial era the regular `planting' of churches in most

towns kept pace with the growth of population so that by the time of the Revolution there were 720 Congregational churches in New England.

     "In like manner the number of college-educated, ordained ministers grew with the population, resulting in a constant ratio of preachers to general population that was among the lowest—if not the lowest—in the Protestant world. Twice on Sunday and often once during the week, every minister in New England delivered sermons lasting between one and two hours in length.

     "Collectively over the entire span of the colonial period, sermons totaled over five million separate messages in a society whose population never exceeded one half million and whose principal city never grew beyond seventeen thousand. The average weekly churchgoer in New England (and there were far more churchgoers that church members( listened to something like seven thousand sermons in a lifetime, totaling somewhere around fifteen thousand hours of concentrated listening. These striking statistics become even more significant when it is recalled that until the last decade o f the colonial era there were at the local level few, if any, competing public speakers offering alternative messages. For all intents and purposes, the sermon was the only voice of regular voice of authority.) (Harry S. Stout, The New England Soul: Preaching and Religious Culture in Colonial New England. New York: Oxford University Press. 1986, pp. 3-4.)

Sermons on Liberty

     During the Revolutionary era the pulpits were literally aflame with liberty. During the critical time in America's conflict with Great Britain England, the Congregational ministers in New England were delivering 2000 sermons a week. Harry S. Stout tells us that, "In Revolutionary New England, ministers continued to monopolize public communications, and the terms they most often employed to justify resistance and to instill hope emanated from the Scriptures and from New England's enduring identity as an embattled people of the Word who were commissioned to uphold a sacred and exclusive covenant between themselves and God.

"The idea of a national covenant supplied the ‘liberties' New Englanders would die protecting, as well as `conditions' that promised deliverance and victory over all enemies. It also provided the innermost impulsion toward radical thought and violent resistance to British ‘tyranny' in New England.

     "Covenant theology as it evolved over five generations of New World preaching comprised a view of history and corporate identity that could best be labeled ‘providential.' In t his view God entered into covenants with nations, as well as individuals, and promised that he would uphold them by his providential might if they would acknowledge no other sovereign and observe the terms of obedience contained in his Word.

     "Covenanted peoples like those of ancient Israel and New England were the hub around which sacred

(i.e. real) history revolved. Such peoples might be ignored or reviled by the world and figure insignificantly in the great empires of profane history, but viewed through the sacred lens of providential history they were seen as God' special instruments entrusted with the task of preparing the way for messianic deliverance." (Harry S. Stout, New England Soul, p. 7.)

God's New Israel

     The early clergy firmly believed that America was divinely chosen and commissioned to serve as God's "New Israel" and the new "Promised Land." They firmly believed that America has been chosen as God's `special instruments' to fulfill a glorious destiny. The early clergy firmly supported the war for independence and they believed that God raised up a modern Moses to deliver the people of America from bondage and tyranny.

     Johnathan Edwards was one of the key leaders of the Great Awakening in the early part of the 17th century. His classic sermon entitled, "The Latter-day Glory is Probably to Begin in America" launched the early clergy right into the Revolutionary War period. In this classic sermon, Edwards stated that, "It is not unlikely that this work of God's spirit, so extraordinary and wonderful, is the dawning, or at least a prelude of that glorious work of God, so often foretold in scripture, which, in the progress and issue of it, shall renew the world of mankind....

     "We cannot reasonably think otherwise, than that he beginning of this great work of God must be near. And there are many things that make it probable that his work will begin in America. —It is signified that it shall begin in some remote part of the world, with which other parts have no communication but by navigation, in Isaiah 60: 9. ‘Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tashish first, to bring my sons from afar.' It is exceeding manifest that this chapter is a prophecy of the prosperity of the church, in its most glorious state on earth, in the latter days; and I cannot think that any thing else can here be intended but America by the isles that are far off, from whence the first-born sons that glorious day shall be brought....

     "... America was discovered about the time of the reformation, or but little before: Which reformation was the first thing that God did towards the glorious renovation of the world after it had sunk into the depths of darkness and ruin, under the great anti-Christian apostasy. So that, as soon as this new world stands forth in view, God presently goes about doing some great thing in order to make way for the introduction of the church's latter-day glory—which is to have it first seat in, and is to take its rise from the new world....

     "And if we may suppose that this glorious work of God shall begin in any part of America, I think, if we consider the circumstances of the settlement of New England, it must needs appear the most likely, of all American colonies, to be the place whence this work shall principally take it rise. And, if these things be so, it gives us more abundant reason to hope that what is now seen in America, and especially in New England, may prove the dawn of that glorious day; and the very uncommon and wonderful circumstances an events of this work, seem to me strongly to argue that God intends it as the beginning or forerunner of something vastly great. (Jonathan Edwards, Sermon)

     The early clergy firmly believed the words of Edwards and they saw "something vastly great" occurring with the Declaration of Independence and the Revolutionary War. Therefore, they were very instrumental in rally the colonists to support the war against England. The pulpits of the Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Baptists were aflame with sermons on freedom and liberty.

1777

     In a sermon entitled, "The American States Acting Over the Part of the Children of Israel in the Wilderness and Thereby Impeding Their Entrance Into Canaan's Rest," Nicholas Street stated,"... We are ready to marvel at the unreasonable vileness and cruelty of the British tyrant and his ministry, in endeavoring to oppress, enslave and destroy these American states...."

     "... The British tyrant is only acting over the same wicked and cruel part, that Pharaoh king of Egypt acted towards the children of Israel above 3000 years ago....

     " ... I now boldly assert him to be a cruel tyrant, who seeks to govern us without law, without reason, or the sacred dictates of revelation; impiously declaring that he has a right to give is laws binding in all cases whatsoever....

     "It is no great matter for men to trust in God when everything looks fair and prosperous; they then deceive themselves, thinking they trust in God, whereas they trust in the fair prospect that is before them. But this is the trial of our sincerity, when everything looks dark and gloomy, according to human prospects, then to commit our cause to God and trust in him for a favourable issue. This is truly trusting in God. And these shifting scenes of adverse and prosperous appearances are designed to humble us and prove us, that we may know what is in our hearts....

     "And God is trying us and proving us by all the variety of his dispensations, that we may know what is in our hearts, and whether we will keep his commandments or no....

     "And God is visiting us with these things with general judgments; and 'tis likely God will keep us in this wilderness of trouble to humble us and prove us, that we may see our errors, and know that God has a righteous controversy with us at this day...." (Sermon, East Haven, Connecticut. April, 1777.)

1783

     In a sermon entitled, "The United States Elevated to Glory and Honour, Ezra Stiles delivered on May 8, 1783 admonished his listeners to remember that, "Liberty, civil and religious, has sweet and attractive charms. The enjoyment of this, with property, has filled the English settlers in America with a most amazing spirit, which has operated, and still will operate, with great energy. Never before has the experiment been so effectually tried, of every man's reaping the fruits of his labour and feeling his share in the aggregate system of power. The ancient republics did not stand on the people at large; and therefore no example or precedent can be taken from them. Even men of arbitrary principles will be obliged, if they would figure in these states, to assume the patriot so long as they will length be charmed with the sweets of liberty....

     "While oppressed by the heavy weight of this combined force, heaven inspired us with resolution to cut the Gordian know when the die was cast in the glorious act of INDEPENDENCE. This was sealed and confirmed by God Almighty in the victory of General Washington at Trenton, and in the surprising movement and battle of Princeton; by which astonishing effort of generalship, General Howe, and the whole British army, in elated confidence and in open-mouthed march for Philadelphia was instantly stopped, remanded back, and cooped up for a shivering winter in the little borough of Brunswick. Thus God `turned the battle to the gate;' and this gave a ‘finishing to the foundation' of the American republic....

     "What but a miracle has preserved the UNION OF THE STATES, the PURITY OF CONGRESS, and the unshaken PATRIOTISM OF EVERY GENERAL ASSEMBLY? It is God who has raised up for us a great and powerful ALLY, an ally which sent us a chosen army and a naval force; who sent us a Rochambeau and a Chatelleus, and other characters of the first military merit and eminence, to fight side by side with a Washington and a Lincoln, and the intrepid Americans, in the siege and battle of York-Town. It is God who so ordered the balancing interests of nations as to produce an irresistible motive in the European maritime powers to take our part. Hence the recognition of our independence by Spain and Holland, as well as France.

     "So wonderfully does Divine Providence order the time and coincidence of the public national motives, co-operating in effecting great public events and revolutions.

     "But the time would fail me to recount the wonder working Providence of God in the events of this war. Let these serve as a specimen and lead us to hope that God will not forsake this people, for whom he has done such marvelous things (whereof we are glad and rejoice this day) having at length brought us to the dawn of Peace. O peace! thou welcome guest! all hail, thou heavenly visit and calm the tumult of nations, and wave thy balmy wing to perpetuity over this region of liberty. Let there be a tranquil period for the unmolested accomplishment of the Magnalia Dei, the great events in God's moral government, designed from eternal ages to be displayed in these ends of the earth.

     "And here I beg leave to congratulate my country upon the termination of this cruel and unnatural war, the cessation of hostilities, and the prospect of peace. May this great event excite and elevate our first, our highest

acknowledgments to the SOVEREIGN MONARCH of Universal Nature, to the Supreme Disposer and Controller of all Events; let our pious, sincere and devout gratitude ascend in one general effusion of heart-felt praise and hallelujah, in one united cloud of incense, even the incense of universal joy and thanksgiving to God, from the collective body of the United States.

     "And while we render our supreme honors to the Most High, the God of armies, let us recollect with affectionate honor the bold and brave sons of freedom, who willingly offered themselves and bled in the defense of their country. Our fellow-citizens, the Officers and Soldiers of the Patriot Army, who, with the Manlys, the Joneses, and other gallant commanders and brave seamen of the American navy, have heroically fought the war by sea and by land, merit of their once bleeding but now triumphant country, Laurels, Crowns, Rewards, and the highest honors. Never was the possession of arms used with more glory, or in a better cause; since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. O WASHINGTON! how do I love thy name! how have I often adored and blessed thy God for creating and forming thee the great ornament of human kind! upheld and protected by the Omnipotent, by the Lord of Hosts, thou hast been sustained and carried through one of the most arduous and most important wars in all history.

     “The world and posterity will, with admiration, contemplate thy deliberate, cool, and stable judgment, thy virtues, thy valour and heroic achievements, as far surpassing those of Cyrus, whom the world loved and adored. The sound of thy fame shall go out into all the earth, and extend to distant ages. Thou has convinced the world of the Beauty of Virtue—for in thee this Beauty shines with distinguished lustre. Those who would not recognize any beauty in virtue in the world beside will yet reverence it in thee. There is a glory in thy disinterested benevolence, which the greatest characters would purchase, if possible, at the expence of worlds, and which may excite indeed their emulation, but cannot be felt by the venal great—who think every thing, even virtue, and true glory, may be bought and sold, and trace our every action to motives terminating in self." (Sermon, before Governor Jonathan Trumbull and the General Assembly of the State Connecticut. 1783)

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Chapter 7—The Declaration of Independence Is America’s Spiritual Manifesto

While the war was underway the Second Continental Congress was preparing to issue a formal statement. On June 7, 1776 Richard Henry Lee introduced a motion for the colonies to declare in favor of independence. On June 11, 1776 the Congress appointed a committee to draft a formal declaration.

     The committee was composed of five distinguished citizens: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston.

     Jefferson retired to a small room near Independence Hall in Philadelphia and began writing a document that would be read by millions and millions of people throughout America and the world. Once again the Spirit of the Lord rested upon this noble man and guided his pen to write words of truth and inspiration. The Declaration of Independence which Jefferson drafted in an inspired document. The Declaration is a spiritual manifesto to the world. It declares in clear and eloquent language that all rights are a gift of God. Rights do not originate with man, but with God and God alone.

     When the members of the Continental Congress assembled in the Pennsylvania State House to vote on the declaration it was a momentous day not only for America but for the entire world. Every man that walked into that room felt the enormous significance of what they were about to do. Every man knew what it meant to approve the new declaration. Already the British had tried to kill Samuel Adams and John Hancock.

Those Who Signed the Declaration Were Guilty of Treason in British Eyes

     All of the delegates knew that if General Washington failed to defeat the British they would all be hanged for treason. However, these were men of vision, faith and determination. They knew that America had been chosen by Providence to serve as a land of liberty. They knew that America could not achieve her divine destiny unless she was free, sovereign and independent. They knew that General George Washington had been raised up to redeem the land through the shedding blood. They knew that the God of Israel was with Washington and his troops. And they knew that they had not arrived at this moment by accident. They too had been raised up by God to draft and approve the Declaration of Independence. They knew that they had a rendezvous with destiny. However, the decision to officially declare for independence was still a fiercely debated issue.

     On July 3, 1776 Jefferson had finished a second draft of the new declaration and it was ready to be presented to members of Congress. After a few minor changes, the declaration was ready for consideration. At the last minute some of the delegates began to waver. John Adams rose up and encouraged the delegates to approve the declaration. The delegates unanimously gave their consent and each one signed the famous document. It was done.

The Unanimous Declaration Of the Thirteen United States of America

     The Declaration of Independence reads:

     "When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of re's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should de are the causes which impel them to the separation.

Men Are Endowed By Their Creator With Certain Unalienable Rights

     "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rites, t at among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying the foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

     "Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when

a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards

for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and is now a necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.”

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Chapter 8— State Constitutions Are Key to Preserving Liberty

Once the Revolutionary War was over the new citizens of American began the work of constructing new charters of liberty to govern the former colonies of England. While General George Washington and his valiant officers and troops were on the battlefield, other patriots were busy laying the foundation of civic institutions to protect the natural rights of mankind which has now been secured through the war.

     The Sons of Liberty, which were organized by Samuel Adams and James Otis in 1772 set up the Committees on Correspondence. The committees were organized in all the colonies and acted like a government in exile. It was the Committees that organized the First and Second Continental Congresses.

     Since the days of the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Order of Connecticut, the colonists had been learning the art of self-government. With the adopting of the Declaration of Independence, the former colonies became new states as conventions adopted new state constitutions.

     The seeds of liberty planted in New England by the Pilgrims and Puritans had grown into the mighty Liberty Tree on the Boston Commons. And lanterns hung by the Sons of Liberty guided the former colonists as they now became official citizens of the new states.

     Between 1776 and 1783 the former colonies set up state constitutions to govern the people. The unique aspect of these constitutions is that they were written by delegates of the people. They followed the advice of John Adams, who had written. "There is no good government but what is republican. That the only valuable part of the British Constitution is so; because the very definition of a republic is `an empire of laws, and not of men.' (Thoughts on Government, Boston, 1776.)

     In America the Rule of Law would become paramount. The states and the America people were to be governed by laws adopted by their representatives, hence the tern Representative Government.

     The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 clearly outlined the goals of the people to govern themselves under a system of laws. There would be no more taxation without representation. The constitution clearly outlined the new form of representative government.

Massachusetts Constitution of 1780

Preamble

     "The end of the institution, maintenance and administration of government, is to secure the existence of the body-politic; to protect it; and to furnish the individuals who compose it, with the power of enjoying, in safety and tranquility, their natural rights, and the blessings of life: And whenever these great objects are not obtained, the people have a right to alter the government, and to take measures necessary for their safety, prosperity and happiness.

     The body-politic is formed by a voluntary association of individuals: It is a social compact, by which the whole people covenants with each citizen, and each citizen with the whole people, that all shall be governed by certain laws for the common good. It is the duty of the people, therefore, in framing a Constitution of Government, to provide for an equitable mode of making laws, as well as for an impartial interpretation, and a faithful execution of them; that every man may, at all times, find his security in them.

     "WE, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the Great Legislator of the Universe, in affording us, in the course of His providence, an opportunity, deliberately and peaceably, without fraud, violence or surprise, of entering into an original, explicit, and solemn compact with each other; and of forming a new Constitution of Civil Government, for ourselves and posterity; and devoutly

imploring His direction in so interesting a design, Do agree upon, ordain and establish, the following Declaration of Rights, and Frame of Government, as the CONSTITUTION Of the COMMONWEALTH Of MASSACHUSETTS.

Part the First

     "Art. I.—All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights, among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing and protecting property; in fine, that of seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness.

     "II.—It is the right as well as the duty of all men in society, publicly, and at stated seasons, to worship the Supreme Being, the great Creator and Preserver of the universe. And no subject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained, in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshiping God in the manner and season most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience; or for his religious profession or sentiments; provided he doth not disturb the public peace, or obstruct others in their religious worship.

     "III.—As the happiness of a people, and the good order and preservation of civil government, essentially depend upon piety, religion and morality; and as these cannot be generally diffused through a community, but by the institution of the public worship of God, and public instructions in piety, religion and morality. Therefore, to promote their happiness and secure the good order and preservation of their government, the people of this Commonwealth have a right to invest their legislature with power to authorize and require, the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies-politic, or religious societies, to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the institution of t he public worship of God, and for the support and maintenance of public protestant teachers of piety, religion and morality, in all cases where such provision shall be made voluntarily.

     "AND the people of this Commonwealth have also a right to, and do, invest their legislature with authority to enjoin upon all the subjects an attendance upon the instructions of the public teachers aforesaid, at stated times and seasons, if there be any on whose instructions they can conscientiously and conveniently attend.

     "PROVIDED notwithstanding, that the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies politic, or religious societies, shall, at all times, have the exclusive right of electing their public teachers, and of contracting with them for their support and maintenance.

     "AND all monies paid by the subject to the support of public worship, and of the public teachers aforesaid, shall, if he require it, be uniformly applied to the support of the public teacher or teachers of his own religious sect of denomination, provided there be any on whose instructions he attends: otherwise it may be paid towards the support of the teacher or teachers of the parish or precinct in which the said monies are raised.

     "AND every denomination of Christians, demeaning themselves peaceably, and as good subjects of the Commonwealth, shall be equally under the protection of the law: And no subordination of any one

sect or denomination to another shall ever be established by law.

     "IV.—THE people of this Commonwealth have the sole and exclusive right of governing themselves as a free, sovereign, an independent state; and do, and forever hereafter shall, exercise and enjoy every power, jurisdiction and right which is not, or may not hereafter, by them expressly delegated to the United States of America in Congress assembled.

     "V.—ALL power residing originally in the people, and being derived from them, the several magistrates and officers of government, vested with authority, whether legislative, executive, or judicial, are their substitutes and agents, and are at all times accountable to them.

     "VI.—NO man, nor corporation, or association of men, have any other title to obtain advantages, or particular and exclusive privileges, distinct from those of the community, than what arises from the consideration of services rendered to the public; and this title being in nature neither hereditary, nor transmissible to children, or descendants, or relations by blood, the idea of a man born a magistrate, lawgiver, or judge, is absurd and unnatural.

     "VII—GOVERNMENT is instituted for the common good; for the protection, safety, prosperity and happiness of the people; and not for the profit, honor, or private interest of any one man, family, or class of men: Therefore the people alone have an incontestable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to institute government; and to reform, alter, or totally change the same, when their protection, safety, prosperity and happiness require it.

     "VIII.—IN order to prevent those, who are vested with authority, from becoming oppressors, the people have a right, at such periods and in such manner as they shall establish by their frame of government, to cause their public officers to return to private life; and to fill up vacant places by certain and regular elections and appointments.

     "IX.—ALL elections ought to be free; and all the inhabitants of this Commonwealth, having such qualifications as they shall establish by their frame of government, have an equal right to elect officers, and to be elected, for public employments.

     "X.—EACH individual of the society has a right to be protected by it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty and prosperity, according to standing laws. He is obliged, consequently, to contribute his share to the expense of this protection; to give his personal service, or an equivalent, when necessary: But no part of the property of any individual, can, with justice, be taken from him, or applied to public uses without his own consent, or that of the representative body of the people: In fine, the people of this Commonwealth are not controllable by any other laws, than those to which their constitutional representative body have given their consent. And whenever the public exigencies require, that the property of any individual should be appropriated to public uses, he shall receive a reasonable compensation therefor.

     "XI.—EVERY subject of the Commonwealth ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character. He ought to obtain right and justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it; completely, and without any denial; promptly, and without delay; conformably to the laws.

     "XII.—NO subject shall be held to answer for any crime or offence, until the same is fully and plainly„ substantially and formally, described to him; or be compelled to accuse, or furnish evidence against himself. And every subject shall have a right to produce all proofs, that may be favorable to him; to meet the witnesses against him face to face, and to be fully heard in his defence by himself, or his council, at his election. And no subject shall be arrested, imprisoned, despoiled, or deprived of his property, immunities, or privileges, put out of the protection of the law, exiled, or deprived of his life, liberty, or estate; but by the judgment of his peers, or the laws of the land.

     "AND the legislature shall not make any law, that shall subject any person to a capital or infamous punishment, excepting for the government of the army and navy, without trial by jury.

     "XIII.—IN criminal prosecution, the verification of facts in the vicinity where they happen, is one of the greatest securities of the life, liberty, and property of the citizen.

     XIV.—EVERY subject has a right to be secure from all unreasonable searches, and seizures of his person, his houses, his papers, and all his possessions. All warrants, therefore, are contrary to this right, if the cause or foundation of them be not previously supported by oath or affirmation; and if the order in the warrant to a civil officer, to make search in suspected places, or to arrest one or more suspected persons, or to seize their property, be not accompanied with a special designation of the persons or objects of search, arrest, or seizure: and no warrant ought to be issued but in cases, and with the formalities, prescribed by the laws.

     "XV.—IN all controversies concerning property, and in all suits between two or more persons, except in cases in which it has heretofore been other ways used and practiced, the parties have a right to a trial by jury; and this method of procedure shall be held sacred, unless, in causes arising on the high-seas, and such as relate to mariners wages, the legislature shall hereafter find it necessary to alter it.

     XVI.—THE liberty of the press is essential to the security of freedom in a state: it ought not, therefore, to be restrained in this Commonwealth.

     "XVII—THE people have a right to keep and to bear arms for the common defence. And as in time of peace armies are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be maintained without the consent of the legislature; and the military power shall always be held in an exact subordination to the civil authority, and be governed by it.

     "XVIII.—A FREQUENT recurrence to the fundamental principles of the constitution, and a constant adherence to those of piety, justice, moderation, temperance, industry, and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the advantages of liberty, and to maintain a free government: The people ought, consequently, to have a particular attention to all those principles, in the choice of their officers and representatives: And they have a right to require of their law-givers and magistrates, an exact and constant observance of them, in the formation and execution of the laws necessary for the good administration of the Commonwealth.

     "XIX.—THE people have a right, in an orderly and peaceable manner, to assemble to consult upon the common good; give instructions to their representatives; and to request of the legislative body, by the way of addresses, petitions, or remonstrances, redress of the wrongs done them, and of the grievances they suffer.

     "XX.—THE power of suspending the laws, or the execution of the laws, ought never to be exercised but by the legislature, or by authority derived from it, to be exercised in such particular cases only as the legislature shall expressly provide for.

     "XXI.—THE freedom of deliberation, speech and debate, in either house of the legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, action or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever.

     "XXII—THE legislature ought frequently to assemble for the redress of grievances, for correcting, strengthening, and confirming the laws, and for making new laws, as the common good may require.

     "XXIII.—NO subsidy, charge, tax, impost, or duties, ought to be established, fixed, laid, or levied, under any pretext whatsoever, without the consent of the people, or their representatives in the legislature.

     "XXIV.—LAWS made to punish for actions done before the existence of such laws, and which have not been declared crimes by preceding laws, are unjust, oppressive, and inconsistent with the fundamental principles of a free government.

     "XXV.—NO subject ought, in any case, or in any time, to be declared guilty of treason or felony by the legislature.

     "XXVI.—NO magistrate or court of law shall demand excessive bail or sureties, impose excessive fines, or inflict cruel or unusual punishments.

     "XXVII—IN time of peace no soldier ought to be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; and in time of war such quarters ought not to be made but by the civil magistrate, in a manner ordained by the legislature.

     "XXVIII.—NO person can in any case be subjected to law-martial, or to any penalties or pains, by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army or navy, and except the militia in actual service, but by authority of the legislature.

     "XXIX.—IT is essential to the preservation of the rights of every individual, his life, liberty, property and character, that there be an impartial interpretation of the laws, and administration of justice. It is the right of every citizen to be tried by judges as free, impartial and independent as the lot of humanity will admit. It is therefore not only the best policy, but for the security of the rights of the people, and of every citizen, that the judges of the supreme judicial court should hold their offices as long as they behave themselves well; and that they should have honorable salaries ascertained and established by standing laws.

     "XXX.—IN the government of this Commonwealth, the legislative department shall never exercise the executive and judicial powers, or either of them: The executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers, or either of them: The judicial shall never exercise the legislative and executive powers, or either of them: to the end it may be a government of laws and not of men.”

     The state constitutions form the foundation and backbone of the American system of government. The founding fathers believed in the concept of rule of law, written constitutions, representative government and local self-government.

     The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 eloquently outlined the new form of government that was now taking over America. It was the model for other states, just as Virginia's Declaration of Rights was the model for the nation when it came to outlining the natural rights of mankind.

     The citizens of the new states now faced a new challenge—governing the new confederacy of states.

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Chapter 9 —The U. S. Constitution Is an Inspired Document

     After the Declaration of Independence was written, the delegates at the Continental Congress established a committee to draft a new constitution to govern the “united colonies." On July 12, 1776 a committee of Congress reported a plan for a new government.     

     The new plan was debated and amended and eventually emerged as the Articles of Confederation. It was adopted on November 15, 1777. It was submitted to the states for ratification and every state except Maryland ratified it within two years.

     At the time there was a dispute over state boundaries and the western lands. The small states feared oppression and domination by the larger states. The Articles of confederation did not officially become law until March 1, 1781.

The Issue of Representation

     The dispute over land was not the only issue creating problems for the new confederacy. The issue of representation in the new confederacy erupted as the small states feared domination by the large states in the new Congress. Conflict over trade barriers and import duties also divided the new states. The issue of paper currency was also creating problems. State jealousies and inequalities would dominate the debates from 1781 to 1787. Another important issue which arose to the forefront was the important issue of state sovereignty. Where did the ultimate political power reside. Was it in the states or in Congress? This issue would become a critical issue for the members of Congress throughout the years between the adoption of the Declaration of Independence and state constitutions and the drafting of a new constitution in 1787. It would also be a hotly debated issue among proponents and opponents of states rights or state sovereignty for the next two centuries.

The Debate Over State Sovereignty

     At the heart of the issue was the question of whether the states, which were sovereign powers under their state constitutions, retained all the attributes of sovereignty after they entered the confederacy. It is clear from reading the Articles of Confederacy that they did cede certain powers to the new government, however, the states were merely delegating only certain powers. They were not delegating all the power to govern their new states to the new confederacy. If that were true, then there would have been no need for state constitutions. Is important to note that the States existed prior to the creation of the confederacy and they retained full and complete sovereignty over their territories or states.

     The point to remember is that the states at the time of their creation became free, sovereign and independent entities retaining all power to govern within their borders. Obviously, the people, through their elected representatives, were free to delegate Certain Powers to the new confederacy. However, the delegation of the Certain Powers did not nullify the States or eliminate their state constitutions. The concept of state sovereignty as enthroned in the state constitutions is the foundation of representative government in America.

     One of the major defects in the Articles of Confederacy was the lack of provisions for an executive and judicial branch of government. Obviously the new confederacy could not govern without a more comprehensive constitution. By 1786 it became clear to the leaders of the new states that a new remedy was needed.

     A movement to reform the articles was underway among Congress and key leaders in the states. In September of 1786 a convention met in Annapolis to discuss trade dispute among the states. Five states sent delegates. Two key members of the convention, James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, used the meeting to press for major changes in the Articles of Confederation. They persuaded the delegates to pass a resolution calling for a constitutional convention to meet in Philadelphia in May of 1787. The new Congress refused to give its approval to the call for a convention.

Federal Convention of 1787

     James Madison returned to Virginia and kept up pressure for the calling of a constitutional convention to revise the Articles. In November of 1786 he succeeded and Virginia passed a resolution urging all the States to send delegates to a convention in Philadelphia. With a few days other states passed similar resolutions. Congress finally agreed to call for a convention . The most important convention in the history of the world was about to convene in Philadelphia.

     The states appointed seventy-four delegates to the Federal Convention, however only fifty-five delegates would arrive in Philadelphia. The list of delegates was impressive. Of those that assembled in Philadelphia twenty-one were veterans of the Revolutionary War, forty-six had served in their states (colonial assemblies or State legislatures), twenty-four were members of the First and Second Continental Congresses, thirty-nine had served in the new Congress under the Articles of Confederation which had been meeting in New York City, ten had played major roles in the drafting of their state constitutions, six had signed the Declaration of Independence and twenty of t hem were serving as governors or would serve as governors in the future.

     George Washington headed the list of delegates. He was followed by Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Roger Sherman, Rufus King, Nicholas Gilman, William Livingston, Robert Morris, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris, John Dickinson and Charles C. Pinckey. Thomas Jefferson was in Paris and John Adams was in London on diplomatic missions.

     James Madison arrived in Philadelphia eleven days early and began preparations for the convention. Of the Virginia delegation Madison was the scholar. At his request his close friend Thomas Jefferson had been sending him hundreds of books from Paris on political theory, laws of nations, world history, ancient governments, biographies and works by famous men of the enlightenment and reformation.

     For almost a year Madison had devoted his entire attention to preparing for the Federal Convention in Philadelphia. He sensed its importance to America and to the world. He had labored long and hard to assemble the delegates in Philadelphia. From the time of the Annapolis Convention and the Philadelphia Convention Madison had been studying ancient confederacies. He produced a lengthy study entitled, "Vices of the Political System of the United States."

Arrival of George Washington

     George Washington arrived in Philadelphia on May 13, 1787 amidst the chiming of bells and the fire of artillery. He would be elected president of the convention. Philadelphia was the home of Benjamin Franklin, who had gained world renown for his discoveries and famous Almanac. It was Franklin who would write in a letter to a friend, "God grant that not only the lover of liberty but a thorough knowledge of the rights of man may pervade all the nations of the earth, so that a philosopher may set his foot anywhere on its surface and say, `This is my country.' (Catherine Drinker Bowen, The Miracle at Philadelphia. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1966, p. 17.)

     The convention was scheduled to convene on May 14, 1787, however, it was not until May 25th that a quorum was present. Seven states were required to constitute a quorum.

     At the time of the meeting there were two other groups in Philadelphia. They were the Presbyterians and the Society of the Cincinnati. The latter was composed of the officers of the Revolutionary War. These conventions had not been scheduled by accident. The Federal Convention of 1787 had its own Secret Service watching over the delegates to ensure that the meeting was not disrupted by enemies of America. The clergy were there with their prayers and the Cincinnati with their swords and pistols. In addition, an unseen power would arrive when the delegates began their meeting. The Spirit of the Lord would guide the delegates and given them the inspiration they needed to accomplish their important task. After all, billions and billions of people would be affected by the outcome of this convention. The face of Providence was smiling upon the delegates. They were not alone.

Amend and Revise the Articles of Confederation

     The assigned task of the convention was to revise and amend the Articles of Confederation. However, James Madison and a small group of delegates wanted a new constitution. Therefore when the convention finally started the Virginia Plan was introduced and formed the central point of debate throughout the remainder of the convention. The Virginia Plan completely set aside the Articles of Confederation. It created a national government. The Virginia Plan was opposed by the New Jersey Plan. The debate was underway which determine the fate of freedom and liberty in America.

     Madison also did something extraordinary during the convention. He sat near the front of the delegates so he could hear all the debates and he recorded the speeches of the convention in shorthand. During the evening he would go back to his room and write them out. He also recorded all the votes of the convention. Without Madison's Notes on the Federal Convention of 1787 we would be practically in the dark as to the proceedings of this remarkably convention. Undoubtedly, James Madison was inspired to record the speeches and votes, a task he later said almost killed him. Madison would not allow the proceedings of the convention be published until after all of the delegated to the famous convention had died.

     The Virginia plan laid out the perimeters of a national government. It was a very comprehensive and well-thought out document. Madison and a group of close friends had spent over a year preparing the plan. The plan divided government into three branches: legislative, judicial and executive. It outlined the powers each of three branches of government. As one might expect, the delegates came from different background and different states, therefore a heated debate arose over each of the provisions. The debate would go on for three and one half months. There was contention particularly over representation in the House of Representatives and the Senate. It was the small states verses the large states and neither seemed to compromise. The Great Comprise as it became known was that each state would have an equal vote in the Senate and in the House of Representatives apportionment would be made by Congress on the basis of representation.

Franklin Recommends That the Delegates Appeal to God

     At one point the debates became quite intense. Benjamin attempted to calm the delegates with these

words:

     "Mr. President,

     "The small Progress we have made, after 4 or 5 Weeks' close Attendance and continual Reasonings with each other, our different Sentiments on almost every Question, several of the last producing as many Noes as Ayes, is, methinks, a melancholy Proof of the Imperfection of the Human Understanding. We indeed seem to feel our own want of political Wisdom, since we have been running all about in Search of it. We have gone back to ancient History for Models of Government, and examin'd the different Forms of those Republics, which, having been formed with the Seeds of their own Dissolution, now no longer exist; and we have view'd modern States all round Europe, but find none of their Constitutions suitable to our Circumstances.

     "In this Situation of this Assembly, groping, as it were, in the dark td find Political Truth, and scarce able to distinguish it when presented to us, how has it happened, Sir, that we have not hitherto once thought of humbly applying to the Father of Lights to illuminate our Understandings? In the Beginning of the Contest with Britain, when we were sensible of Danger, we had daily Prayers in this Room for the Divine Protection. Our Prayers, Sir, were heard;—and they were graciously answered. All of us, who were engag'd in the Struggle, must have observed frequent instances of a superintending Providence in our Favor.

     "To that kind Providence we owe this happy Opportunity of Consulting in Peace on the Means of establishing our future national Felicity. And have we now forgotten that powerful Friend? or do we imagine we

no longer need its assistance? I have lived, Sir, a long time; and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this Truth that GOD governs in the Affairs of Men. And if a Sparrow cannot fall to the Ground without his Notice, is it probable that an Empire can rise without his Aid? We have been assured, Sir, in the Sacred Writings, that "except the Lord build the House, they labour in vain that build it" I firmly believe this; and I also believe, that, without his concurring Aid, we shall succeed in this political Building no better than the Builders of Babel; we shall be divided by our little, partial, local Interests, our Projects will be confounded, and we ourselves shall become a Reproach and a Bye-word down to future Ages. And, what is worse, Mankind may hereafter, from this unfortunate Instance, despair of establishing Government by human Wisdom, and leave it to Chance, War, and Conquest.

     "I therefore beg leave to move,

     "That henceforth Prayers, imploring the Assistance of Heaven and its Blessing on our Deliberations, be held in this Assembly every morning before we proceed to Business; and that one or more of the Clergy of this city be requested to officiate in that Service. (Madison's Notes on Federal Convention of 1787.)

     Although the convention did not hire a minister to say official prayers, the Presbyterian Convention was meeting nearby and they were saying their prayers for the delegates. Debate continued throughout the long and hot summer. The sessions were held in secret allowing the delegates to speak freely on the issues.

     The Virginia Plan was finally accepted and after many changes and amendments it formed the basis of a new Constitution for the United States of America. Madison and his Federalists as they became known won the debate. They persuaded the delegates who merely wanted to revise and amend the Articles of Convention to support the new plan of government for the nation.

     On September 17, 1787 the new Constitution was ready to be signed. As delegates went to the front of Independence Hall to put their signature on the parchment, Madison recorded, "Whilst the last members were signing it, Doctr. Franklin looking towards the Presidents chair, at he back of which a rising son happened to be painted, observed to a few members near him, that painters had found it difficult to distinguish in their art a rising son from a setting son. I have, said he, often and often in the course of the session, and the vicissitudes of my hopes and fears as to its issue, looked at that behind the President without being able to tell whether it was a rising or setting. But now at length I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting sun." (Madison's Notes on the Federal Convention of 1787.)

Drafting of the U. S. Constitution Is the Fulfillment of Ancient Prophecy

     The drafting of the U. S. Constitution was a major step in the process in establishing a land of liberty in the New World. It was to play such a dominant role in the last days that the prophet Isaiah was allowed to see the coming forth of this remarkable document. He prophesied that, "For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem." (Isaiah 2: 3.)

Miracle at Philadelphia

     There had been so much tension, discord, disagreement and division among the delegates inside the convention this it is a miracle that they were able to produce such a remarkable document. Even the delegates to the Federal Convention thought that the final product was a miracle. In a letter to Thomas Jefferson just after the convention adjourned, James Madison wrote that it was "impossible to consider the degree of concord which ultimately prevailed as less than a miracle." Catherine Drinker Bowen, The Miracle at Philadelphia, p. 278-279.)

     In a letter to Marquis de Lafayette outlining the recent events in Philadelphia, George Washington wrote, "As to my sentiments with respect to the merits of the new Constitution, I will disclose them without reserve.... It appears to me ... little short of a miracle, that the Delegates from so many different States (which states you know are also different from each other in their manners, circumstances and prejudices) should unite in forming a system of national government, so little liable to well founded objections." (John C. Fitzpatrick, editor, The Writings of George Washington, Volume 29, pp. 409-410.)

Divine Inspirations Given to the Founding Fathers

     William Samuel Johnson, a delegate at the constitutional convention from Connecticut wrote that, "I cannot but impute it to a signal intervention of divine providence, that a convention of States differing in circumstances, interests, and manners, should be so harmonious in adopting one grand system." (George C. Groce, William Samuel Johnson: a Maker of the Constitution. Morningside Heights, New York: Columbia University Press, 1937, p. 156.)

     In a newspaper article that appeared in the New York City, James Madison wrote that, "The real wonder is that so many difficulties should have been surmounted, and surmounted with a unanimity almost as unprecedented as it must have been unexpected. It is impossible for any man of candor to reflect upon this circumstance without partaking of the astonishment. It is impossible for the man of pious reflection not to perceive in it a finger of that Almighty hand which has been so frequently and signally extended to our relief in the critical stages of the revolution." (The Federalist, No. 37: 16.

     Charles Pinckney, a delegate to the convention from South Carolina acknowledged the hand of God in the drafting of the new constitution when he said, "When the general convention met, no citizen of the United States could expect less from it than I did, so many jarring interests, and prejudices to reconcile! The variety of pressing dangers at our doors, even during the war, were barely sufficient to force us to act in concert, and necessarily give way at time to each other. But when the great work was done and published, I was not only most agreeable disappointed, but struck with amazement. Nothing less than that superintending hand of Providence, that so miraculously carried us through the war (in my humble opinion) could have brought it about so complete, upon the whole." (Paul Liecester Ford, editor, Essays on the Constitution of the United States, Published During Its Discussion by the People, 1787-1788. Brooklyn, New York: Historical Printing Club, 1892, p. 412.)

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Chapter 10 — The Federalist Is America’s Political Bible

     Once the constitution was drafted, it was then sent to the States for ratification. The States then convened individual conventions to adopt the constitution. Its adoption was by means insured in spite of the prominence and high esteem which the people held for those who drafted it. The debates were heated and contentious. The proponents of State Sovereignty felt that the framers of Philadelphia hid given too much power to the new national government. The proponents of the constitution became knows as Federalist because they favored a nation or federal government. The opponents became known as anti-Federalists. The newspapers were full of articles praising and criticizing the new constitution. Pamphlets and leaflets were printed and circulated among the people.

     "It is difficult to form any judgment whether the plan will be adopted or rejected," Alexander Hamilton stated shortly after the Federal Convention had finished drafting the U.S. Constitution in September of 1787. "It must be essentially a matter of conjecture. The present appearances and all other circumstances considered, the probability seems to be on the side of its adoption. But the causes operating against its adoption are powerful. . . ." ( John C. Hamilton, The Federalist, Philadelphia; J.B. Lippincott and Co. 1866, p. xxxiv.)

     Hamilton was correct in his observations. Powerful forces were opposed to the new Constitution. The same day the document was published in New York City, September 27, 1787, a letter appeared in the New York journal bitterly denouncing it. Though it carried the name Cato, the letter was actually written by Governor George Clinton. Another series of denunciatory letters also appeared under the name Brutus, but these were drafted by Robert Yates, a judge of the State's Supreme Court and a delegate to the Federal Convention. He had withdrawn from the Convention after it had become apparent that the delegates were setting aside the Articles of Confederation in favor of a national government.

     The series of letters angered Hamilton, who had just returned to the city from Philadelphia. Three days after Cato's first letter appeared, Hamilton wrote a terse epistle, using the name Caesar, warning the opponents that they must endorse the Constitution or face the consequences. Cato announced that he would not even respond to Caesar's threats.

Birth of the Essays

     Hamilton chose a new strategy. Rather than engage in heated debate with Cato and Brutus, he decided it would be more fruitful to draft a series of essays on the principles of the new Constitution. In a letter, presumably to George Washington, he outlined the new plan. "Since my last [letter]," he wrote, "the chief of the state party has declared his opposition to the government proposed, both in private conversation and in print. That you may judge of the reason and fairness of his views I send you the two essays, with a reply by 'Caesar'. On further consideration it was concluded to abandon this personal form, and to take up the principles of the whole subject. These will be sent to you as published, and might with advantage be republished in your gazettes." (Paul Leicester Ford, editor, The Federalist, New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1898, p. xxii.)

     The purpose of the essays was to persuade the citizens of New York to embrace the government proposed

at the Constitutional Convention. Hamilton invited John Jay, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, and James Madison, a delegate to the Continental Congress, to assist him in his endeavor. The plan called for publication of the essays in New York City newspapers. The New York State Ratifying Convention would be meeting in a few months and the authors felt a sense of urgency in setting the plan in motion.

     Hamilton concentrated on the defects of the Articles of Confederation and various clauses of the Constitution. Madison discussed the theoretical foundations of republican government and the general powers of the new national government. Jay focused on foreign affairs.

     The first essay, prepared by Hamilton, appeared in the Independent Journal on October 27, 1787. After seven were published, the essays began appearing at the rate of four a week. Concerning their rapid appearance, James Madison wrote: "The haste with which many of the papers were penned in order to get through the subject whilst the Constitution was before the public, and to comply with the arrangement by which the printer was to keep his paper open for four numbers every week, was such, that the performance must have borne a very different aspect without the aid of historical and other notes which had been used in the Convention, and without the familiarity with the whole subject produced by the discussion there. It frequently happened, that, whilst the printer was putting into type parts of a number, the following parts were under the pen and to be furnished in time for the press." (Hamilton, p. xxxvi.)

     The essays continued to appear in rapid order and quickly became debater's handbooks for the proponents of the Constitution, who were called Federalists. According to Archibald McLean, a proprietor of the Independent journal, the series of articles was to consist of "twenty [in] number, or at the utmost twenty five." (Hamilton, Letter to Colonel Robert Troup, pp. xxxvii.). Hamilton However, the energetic pens of Madison, Hamilton and Jay soon stretched the essays to eighty-four. Each appeared under the name Publius to conceal the authors' identities.

     The magnitude of the project is underscored when one realizes that while Brutus produced only sixteen essays, Publius prepared eighty-four in the same amount of time.

Publications of the Federalist

     On March 22, 1788, the first thirty-six essays were printed in book form so that they might be sent to the various states where the Constitution was still being considered. The title page read: "The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, written in favor of the NEW CONSTITUTION, AS AGREED UPON BY THE FEDERAL CONVENTION. September 17, 1787, IN TWO VOLUMES. Volume 1, NEW YORK. Printed and sold by J. and A. McLean, No. 41 Hanover Square 1788." (Hamilton.)

     The preface to this remarkable volume stated: "It is supposed that a collection of the papers which have made their appearance in the Gazettes of this City, under the Title of Federalist, may not be without effect in assisting the public judgment on the momentous question of the Constitution for the United States, now under consideration of the people of America. A desire to throw full light upon so interesting a subject has led, in a great measure unavoidably, to a more copious discussion than was at first intended. And the undertaking not being yet completed, it is judged advisable to divide the collection into two Volumes of which the ensuing Numbers constitute the first. The second Volume will follow as speedily as the Editor can get it ready for publication.

     "The particular circumstances under which these papers have been written have rendered it impracticable to avoid violations of method and repetitions of ideas which cannot but displease a critical reader. The latter defect has even been intentionally indulged, in order the better to impress particular arguments which were most material to the general scope of the reasoning.

     "Respect for public opinion, not anxiety for the literary character of the performance, dictates this remark. The great wish is, that it may promote the cause of truth, and lead to a right judgment of the true interests of the community." (Hamilton, pp. xxxvii-xxxviii.)

     The writing of the final forty-eight essays was completed in May of 1788 and published in a second volume on the twenty-eighth of that month. One of the essays was divided into two parts, creating a total of eighty-five. Although now published in book form, the essays continued to appear in New York newspapers until August 15, 1788.

     After its publication, Hamilton sent fifty-two sets of the two-volume Federalist to Governor Edmund Randolph of Virginia. Presumably, Hamilton sent copies to prominent individuals in other States as well. No one knows for sure, however, how much the essays influenced the delegates to the various ratifying conventions. Douglas Adair, a leading twentieth century historian, believed that "the Federalist's propaganda value, as first published in the newspapers, should not be overrated; the essays probably influenced few votes among the general electorate. In the Virginia and New York Conventions, however, the bound volumes were enormously valuable. The pro-Constitution party in both states was eager for a clause by clause discussion of the proposed government. Under this procedure, with Publius' systematic analysis of the document at hand, the Constitutionalist leaders were able to arrange the order of debate beforehand, to coach specific speakers to talk on the various parts of the Constitution, and generally to organize and manage its defense in a systematic way. " (Douglas Adair, "The Authorship of the Disputed Federalist Papers," William and Mary Quarterly (1944), I (3rd Series), 236n.)

     Although the Constitution was ratified by Virginia on June 25, 1788, and New York on July 26, it had gone into effect nearly a month earlier on June 21, with the ratification of the ninth State—New Hampshire.

The Leading Commentary on the Constitution

     On August 13, 1788, Alexander Hamilton sent George Washington a copy of The Federalist. In accepting the papers, Washington wrote: "When the transient circumstances and fugitive performances which attended this crisis shall have disappeared, the, work will merit the notice of posterity, because in it are candidly discussed the principles of Freedom and the topics of government, which will always be interesting to mankind, so long as they shall be connected in civil society. "( George Washington, Writings, edited by J.C. Fitzpatrick, Washington, 1939, Vol. XXX, p. 657.)

     Washington's statement was prophetic. Chancellor James Kent, eminent American jurist of the nineteenth Century, said of The Federalist: "There is no work on the subject of the Constitution, and a republican and federal government generally, that deserves to be more thoroughly studied....

     "I know not, indeed, of any work on the principles of free government that is to be compared in instruction and in intrinsic value to this small and unpretending volume of The Federalist: not even if we resort to Aristotle, Cicero, Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Milton, Locke, or Burke. It is equally admirable in the depth of its wisdom, the comprehensiveness of its views, the sagacity of its reflections, and the fearlessness, patriotism, candor, simplicity, and elegance with which its truths are uttered and recommended." (Chancellor James Kent, Commentaries on America Law, New York: E. B. Clayton, James Van Norden, Vol. 1, p. 241.)

     Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to his close friend James Madison, on November 18, 1788, labeled The Federalist "the best commentary on the principles of government ever written. " (The Works of Thomas Jefferson, edited by Paul L. Ford, Federal Edition, New York: G.P. Putnam's and Sons, 1904, Vol. V, p. 434.) He also said that The Federalist was one book "to which appeal is habitually made by all, and rarely declined or denied by any as evidence of the general opinion of those who framed and those who accepted the Constitution of the United States, on questions as to its genuine meaning." (Quoted in Martin Diamond, "Democracy and the Federalist: A Reconsideration of the Framers' Intent," American Political Science Review, Vol. L, No. 1, March 1959, p. 53.)

     Jefferson's view was also shared by Chief Justice John Marshall: "The Federalist has always been considered as of great authority. It is a complete commentary on our Constitution, and is appealed to by all parties in the question to which that instrument has given birth. Its intrinsic value entitles it to its high rank, and the part two of its authors performed in framing the Constitution put it very much in their power to explain the views with which it was framed. " (Cohens v. Virginia, 6 Wh. 264 (1821). Jefferson and Marshall were not alone in considering The Federalist the foremost commentary on the Constitution. In a letter to Thomas Jefferson on February 8, 1825, James Madison wrote: "The Federalist may fairly enough be regarded as the most authentic

exposition of the text of the federal Constitution, as understood by the Body which prepared and the Authority which accepted it. " (Quoted in Hamilton Albert Long, The American Ideal of 1776, Philadelphia: Your Heritage Books, Inc., 1976, p. 148.)

The Federalist still continues to be the most authoritative interpretation of the Constitution. As noted by Clinton Rossiter, a former professor at Cornell University, The Federalist is "now valued not merely as a clever defense of a particular charter, but as an exposition of certain timeless truths about constitutional government.

... The message of The Federalist reads: no happiness without liberty, no liberty without self-government, no self-government without constitutionalism, no constitutionalism without morality—and none of these great goods without stability and order. (Clinton Rossiter, The Federalist Papers, New York: New American Library, Inc., 1961, pp. vii, xvi.)

     A careful reading of The Federalist is a rich and rewarding experience. A knowledge of The Federalist and its key principles is vitally important in the process of preserving America and its free institutions.

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Chapter 11—The Bill of Rights: America's Ten Commandments

     At the closing weeks of the Federal Convention which convened in Philadelphia in 1787 several of the delegated argued strenuously for a bill of rights to be included in the original constitution. One of the key proponents of a bill of rights was George Mason. The staunch defender of natural rights has written the famous

Declaration of Rights for Virginia in 1776. Several of the state constitutions had also included bills of rights when they were drafted. However, the delegates felt that since the constitution granted the national government only specific powers, it was not necessary to add a bill of rights because the national government was already prohibited from legislating or intervening in the area of natural rights. Therefore, they chose not to add one to the constitution. Of course this did not sit well with George Mason and he refused to sign the new constitution in protest.

     George Mason was not alone. During the ratification debate among the states, it was made very clear that the States would only ratify the new constitution if there was a guarantee that Congress would add a bill of rights when it convened. James Madison and other pledged to add a bill of rights when the new government convened in Washington, D. C.

     After the Constitution was ratified and elections were held throughout the States, the newly elected officials met in Washington, D. C. in 1789 to set up the new government. James Madison had been elected to serve in the House of Representatives from Virginia.     

     True to his word, one of the first orders of the new Congress was to establish a bill of rights. Madison took the lead on the issue and introduced a resolution which contained twelve amendments. After extensive discussion and debate, two amendments were eliminated and Congress adopted the Bill of Rights. They were forwarded to the States where they were adopted and went into effect on December 15, 1781.

     Once again the framers of the Bill of Rights provided the national government with a specific set of concrete guidelines. The Bill of Right was designed by its framers to limit the powers of the national government. That is why you find language like "Congress shall make no law." It is a set of Ten Commandments from the States. The States were the forces behind the drafting and adoption of the Bill of Rights. The States wanted to insure that the national government stayed with the carefully assigned jurisdictions outlined in the Constitution.

The Concept of State Sovereignty

     The concept of State Sovereignty is a key component of the new form of government set up by the framers of the State Constitution and the U. S. Constitution. The States were jealous of their powers and wanted

to guarantee that the national government respected them. This is why the delegates to the Federal Convention of 1787 drafted a document of limited and specific powers.

     The Bill of Rights was specifically drafted to limit the power of the national government. Thomas Jefferson echoed this sentiment when he said, "I hope ... will be formed, to guard the people against the federal government." He also said that a "Bill of Rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth.... And what no government should refuse." (David Stedman, Our Ageless Constitution, p. 45.)

     Once the Bill of Rights was accepted the First Amendment, it ensured that there would be no national church and no officially sanctioned and upheld state religion in American as there had been in England and the nations of Europe, particularly Italy. Freedom of religion was enshrined in American law as people now possesses freedom of conscience and no longer has to worry about being burned at the stake or throw into dungeons for opposing the state religions of Europe.

Bill of Rights

     The famous Bill of Rights read:

     The first ten Amendments were proposed by Congress in 1789, at their first session; and, having received the ratification of the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, they became a part of the Constitution December 15, 1791, and are known as the Bill of Rights.

Amendment I

     Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

     A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III

     No Soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV

     The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V

     No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject, for the same offense, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment V1

     In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII

     In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII

     Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment I

     The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X

     The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people.

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Chapter 12—George Washington’s Farewell Address Was Inspired of God

     U.S. foreign policy has deeply affected the personal lives of all Americans, far more than they may realize. In fact, its tremendous influence is felt in every nation in the world. From the secret council chambers of the White House and the esoteric labyrinths of the State Department there issues forth policies which other nations await with both hope and fear.

     In the past 200 years U.S. Foreign Policy has moved from a position of guarded "separatism" into an era of vigorous involvement in global affairs.

The Original Doctrine of Separatism

     As the United States emerged on the world scene in the 18th Century, American leaders took a united and fixed position against entangling alliances with any foreign powers unless an attack against the United States made such alliances temporarily necessary. This was referred to as the doctrine of "separatism" or "isolationism." This term over the years has implied complete seclusion from other nations. However, the policy of the founders was to cultivate a wholesome relationship with all nations, while remaining aloof from their sectional quarrels. They wanted to keep American markets open to all countries unless certain nations engaged in hostilities against the United States.

     The founder's original policy was similar in many ways to that of modern Switzerland, which has successfully remained neutral and aloof from entangling alliances during two world wars and numerous European quarrels. During these periods of intense military action, Switzerland did not follow a policy of "isolationism," but one of universal diplomatic relations with all who might wish to come to Switzerland to buy, sell, borrow or bank. She took a hostile posture toward none. In general terms, this is analogous to the doctrine of "separatism" practiced by the early American leaders. Thomas Jefferson described this policy in his first inaugural address when he said:

     "Peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none." (Britannica, Annals of America, Vol. 4, p.145.)

     George Washington spelled it out in more detail in his Farewell Address when he advised his successors to "Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all." (Op. cit., Vol. 3, p. 612.) He then went on to say, "The nation which indulges toward another an habitual hatred or habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest." (Ibid.) Washington then concluded, "The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect faith. Here let us stop." (Ibid., pp. 613-614.)

Founders' Effort to Reconcile "Separatism" with Manifest Destiny

     American separatism did have one aspect which was clearly distinct from Swiss neutrality: the founders

accepted the doctrine of "Manifest Destiny". This placed upon the American people the responsibility of serving as the vanguard nation for the moral and political emancipation of all mankind. Freedom, education and progress for all men were a common denominator in the thinking of early American leaders.

     As John Adams wrote:

     "I always consider the settlement of America with reverence and wonder, as the opening of a grand scene and design in Providence for the illumination of the ignorant, and the emancipation of the slavish part of mankind all over the earth." (Ernest Lee Tuveson, Redeemer Nation, University of Chicago Press, 1974, p. 25.)

     In the same spirit, James Madison wrote: "Happily for Americans, happily we trust for the whole human race, they [the founders] pursued a new and more noble course." (Federalist Papers, No. 14, Mentor Edition, p.104.)

     Beginning with the protection of the western hemisphere from further encroachments by European powers, the early foreign policy of the United States focused on separatism and at the same time undertook to promote the idea of human emancipation "all over the earth."

"Separatism" Replaced by "Internationalism"

     The policy of "separatism" (or "isolationism") and Manifest Destiny was the dominant foreign policy of the United States for the first 125 years of its existence. However, with the advent of World War I, the doctrine of "separatism" left the mainstream of prominent thinking and was replaced by a new concept known as "internationalism."

     The doctrine of "internationalism" called for the intimate involvement of the United States in important dimensions of world economics, world politics, and world social conditions.

Modern Separatists Resisted the Change in Foreign Policy

     The doctrine of separatism did not die without a fight. This was particularly evident just before World War I and was also reflected in the rise of the "America First Committee" just before World War II.

     One of the principal spokesmen against U.S. entry into World War I was Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr., father of the famous Lone Eagle who made the first airplane flight over the Atlantic. Congressman Lindbergh felt history vindicated the position of the separatists when he wrote in 1923:

     "Take for example our entry into the World War [in 1917]. We did not think. We elected a president for a second term because he said he 'kept us out of war' in his first term. We proved by a large vote that we did not want to go to war, but no sooner was the president re-elected than the propaganda started to put us to war. Then we became hysterical, as people always have done in war, and we believed everything bad against our enemy and believed only good of our allies and ourselves. As a matter of fact all the leaders were bad, vicious. They lost their reason and the people followed ....

     "We cannot properly blame the people of any of the European nations, unless we blame ourselves. None of them were free from danger of the others.... We, however, were not in danger, statements by profiteers and militarists to the contrary notwithstanding .... The greatest good we could do the world at that time was to stay out, and that would have been infinitely better for ourselves, for we could have helped the world had we conserved our resources. There never was a nation that did a more unstatesmanlike thing than we did to enter the war.

     "We came out without establishing a single principle for which we entered .... The one compelling duty of America is to put its own house in shape, and to stand upon an economic system that will make its natural resources available to the intelligence, industry and use of the people. When we do that the way to world redemption from the folly of present chaos will stand out in our country so clearly, honestly and usefully that we shall be copied wherever peoples do their own thinking." (Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr., The Economic Pinch, 1923, pp. 233-235.)

     Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington all warned the American people of the incredible costs and dangers of entangling alliances with foreign nations and international institutions. In light of world events in the 20th century, it is clear that their words of warning were prophetic.

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Chapter 13—The Free Market System Guarantees Economic Liberty

In the fall of 1787, John Jay, a prominent lawyer from New York City wrote, "It has often given me pleasure to observe, that independent America was not composed of detached and distant territories, but that one connected, fertile, wide-spreading country was the portion of our western sons of liberty.

     "Providence has in a particular manner blessed it with a variety of soils and productions, and watered it with innumerable streams, for the delight and accommodation of its inhabitants. A succession of navigable waters forms a kind of chain round its borders, as if to bind it together; while the most noble rivers in the world, running at convenient distances, present them with highways for the easy communication of friendly aids, and the mutual transportation and exchange of their various commodities.

     "With equal pleasure I have often taken notice, that Providence has been pleased to give this one connected country to one united people—a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in their manners and customs, and who, by their joint counsels, arms, and efforts, fighting side by side throughout a long and bloody war, have nobly established general liberty and independence.

     "This country and this people seem to have been made for each other, and it appears as if it were the design of Providence, that an inheritance so proper and convenient for a band of brethren, united to each other by the strongest ties, should never be split into a number of unsocial, jealous, and alien sovereignties." (Federalist, 2: 5-7.)

The Importance of Rule of Law

     Once the founding fathers had broken the chains of bondage and freed the colonies from the grips of the British Empire, they were not able to develop their own economy. After the Revolutionary War, statesmen stepped into the light and began drafting State Constitutions. These constitutions guaranteed and protected the private property rights of the people. The rule of law was now in effect throughout the new States. With the drafting of the constitutions the framers also established the principle of written constitutions.

U. S. Constitutions Was Adopted

     Step by step the framers of the State Constitutions and the U. S. Constitutions were building the bases for a free market system. The atmosphere was now ripe for the growth and spread of manufacturing and industrial enterprises to provide for the growth and expansion of America as the people began to move into the West.

A Free Market among the States

     One of the most important clauses of the U. S. Constitution allowed Congress, "To regulate Commerce

with foreign Nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes." (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3.) The Constitution allowed for the growth of a free market or common market among the states. As new States were admitted into the Union, the common market expanded. Congress passed laws allowing the free flow of goods across state lines and ended the trade wars among the states that had led to the Annapolis Convention in 1786.

     The next remarkable aspect of the Constitution is that is allowed Congress, "To coin Money, regulate the value thereof." Congress was allowed to, "Fix the Standards of Weights and Measures." As part of its powers, Congress passed laws allowing the new government to collect duties and excises on imported goods into America. The tariffs would finance the new Federal Government and protect America’s new manufacturing and industrial base.

The Importance of America's Manufacturing and Industrial Base

     Alexander Hamilton, now Secretary of the Treasury, wrote his famous treatise on manufacturing and the importance of protecting America's new manufacturing and industrial base from exploitation of the British Empire and other nations around the world who wanted to sell their manufactured products to America.

     Most people are surprised to learn that there were no Federal personal income taxes on individuals or corporations until the adoption of the 16th amendment ion on February 3, 1913.

     The people of the states paid taxes, but there was no Federal Income Tax System until 1913.

     America grew into the most free and prosperous nation on earth because of the economic liberties established by the founding fathers in the State Constitutions and the U. S. Constitutions and in the laws passed by Congress at the start of the new national government in 1791. The Free market System was designed in America, not in England, not in Scotland, not in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, South America or Canada. It was designed in America by the founding fathers. It was the founding fathers love for political, economic and religious liberty that led to the establishment of the most free and prosperous nation in the history of the world. It is not an out growth of mercantilism. It is pure American economic liberty.

The Principles of the Free Market System in America

     The America Free market System is totally unique in the world. It is a remarkable combination of the following : (1) political, economic and religious liberty; (2) the Puritan work ethic; (3) private property rights; (4) abundant natural resources; (5) expansive farm land ; (6) a system of tariffs and excise taxes on imports; (7) limited government; (8) free exchange of goods and services among the American people; (9) exports of surplus goods; (10) absence of government regulations; (11) profit motive; (12) lack of taxes on corporations at the Federal level; (13) lack of taxes on individuals at the Federal level; (14) uniform system of weights and measures; (15) common language; (16) uniform currency; (17) a common market among the states; (18) navigable rivers; (19) numerous open water ports; and (20) contract law.

     Economic liberty was not imported into America. It was born and raised in America. The Pilgrims, the Puritans, the patriots, the soldiers, the Sons of Liberty, the statesmen and early people of America created, through their toil, labor, sacrifice and hard work, the remarkable system that we have today.

     The framers of the State Constitutions and the U. S. Constitution gave us the formula for political, economic and religious liberty, which forms the basis for the free market.

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Chapter 14—The Civil War Was God’s Retribution Upon the Nation for Slavery

From 1620 until 1776 the people in New England and the Middle colonies were forging a new beginning in a new World. The Pilgrims, Puritans and the early colonists were God-fearing and righteous men and women who braved a wide ocean and the harsh elements of New England to forge a new home. In none of their letters, leaflets, pamphlets, sermons, statutes, laws, compacts, charters and books do we find any justification for the evil practice of slavery.

     Where did slavery in America arise? It arose in the Southern colonies. And it was not long before it became a curse for the nation. While it is true that most of humanity has lived in bondage, tyranny, oppression and slavery, this abominable practice was not supposed to exist in the New World. America was to be the cradle of liberty for all people, not just the white race.

     In the eyes of God, all of his children are equal, not equal in talents and dispositions, but equal before the law and the throne of God. Throughout history certain men and women have become prideful, arrogant and lifted up above others. They bestow or buy earthly titles to set themselves above their fellow beings on the earth. The Holy Bible tells us that God loves each and every one of his spirit sons and daughters perfectly. Equality is an eternal principle of heaven.

Inequality Leads to Slavery

     Slavery on earth arises out of a perception of inequality. That is, one person, group or race believe they are better than another person, group or race. The Holy Scriptures tell us that everyone is equal before God. Hence the two great commandments, “love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind” and “love thy neighbor [in reality your spirit brother or spirit sister] as yourself.” (Matthew 22: 36-40.)

     Slavery is also born out of the desire of men and women to rule over others and force them into servitude and bondage to enrich themselves or their kingdom or serfdom or government.

     The history of the earth is one of bondage, oppression, tyranny and slavery. Throughout the ages certain men and women have sought a multitude of ways to enrich themselves at the expense of someone else. They have created class divisions and various blood lines in order to preserve their various tyrannies over others. They have forced people into bondage so they could acquire or maintain wealth. They maintain various governmental systems only to enrich and empower themselves. Every one of the artificial aristocracies is based on inequality and slavery or bondage of one kind or another.

     The Pilgrims and Puritans who came to America fled from the physical and spiritual tyrannies that dominated England and Europe. They did not come to America to set up new forms of tyranny. They came here to establish a nation dedicated to political, economic and religious liberty and system of government where everyone was equal before the law.

No Kings and Queens in America

     There were to be no kings and queens in America. These titles are designed to place a small group of people in power so they can rule over others. The true King of Kings and Lord of Lords is Jesus Christ.

All Men Are Created Equal by God

     In 1776 Thomas Jefferson wrote a document that was designed to revolutionize the world. In the Declaration of Independence, he stated, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness."

     In these inspired words, Jefferson announced to the world that in America, that God is the author of the natural rights of mankind. He also announced to the world that the patriots of 1776 believed that "all men are created equal," that is equal before the law. He stated that "all men" on earth are entitled to "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

     It is impossible to enjoy these things if you are living in bondage or slavery or oppression and tyranny. That is why the Declaration is a spiritual manifesto for the entire world.

     The framers of the State Constitutions and the U. S. Constitution announced to the world that they believed in the natural rights of mankind and sustained the noble and great principles outlined in the Declaration of Independence. If so, how do you account for slavery of one race in America?

     Slavery and the Declaration of Independence are at the opposite ends of the political spectrum.

Debate over Slavery

     During the Federal Convention of 1787 the framers had a lively debate over representation and the institution of slavery. The Northern States wanted to abolish it and the Southern States wanted to keep it. The Southern States did not want to acknowledge the simple truth that all Black people are the spirit sons and daughters of God and the descendants of Adam and Eve.

     The belief that they were not human was an excuse to enslave them and force them into servitude in order enrich themselves upon the labors of others. The institution of slavery is an evil and abominable practice in light of the great spiritual truths echoed in the Declaration of Independence. The cruel and inhumane practice of slavery allowed the plantation owners to become the new aristocracy of the South. The pretense of superiority of plantation owners over Black men and women, boys and girls was an illusion. They were all equal in the sight of God. They were all His children. And all were, in reality, all brothers and sisters.

George Mason's Prophecy on the Civil War

     During the heated debates over slavery and representation, George Mason, the author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, made a truly eloquent speech and uttered a prophecy that literally would come true in less than 100 years. He also identified the origin of slavery in America.

     He said, "This infernal traffic originated in the avarice of British Merchants.

     “The British Government constantly checked the attempts of Virginia to put a stop to it. The present question concerns not the importing States alone but the whole Union. The evil of having slaves was experienced during the late war. Had slaves been treated as they might have been by the enemy, they would have proved dangerous instruments in their hands. But their folly dealt by the slaves, as it did by the Tories.

     "(He mentioned the dangerous insurrections of the slaves in Greece and Sicily; and the instructions given by Cromwell to the Commissioners sent to Virginia, to arm the servants and slaves, in case other means of obtained its submission should fail. Maryland and Virginia he said had already prohibited the importation of slaves expressly. North Carolina had done the same in substance.)

     "All this would be in vain if South Carolina and Georgia be at liberty to import. The Western people are already calling out for slaves for their new lands; and will fill the country with slave if they be got through South Carolina and Georgia. Slavery discourages arts and manufactures. The poor despise labor when performed by slaves. They prevent the immigration of Whites, who really enrich and strengthen a Country. They produce the most pernicious effect on manners.

     "Every master of slaves is born a petty tyrant. They bring the judgment of heaven on a Country. As nations cannot be rewarded or punished in the next world they must be in this. By an inevitable chain of causes and effects Providence punished national sins, by national calamities.

     "(He lamented that some of our Eastern brethren had from a lust of gain embarked in this nefarious traffic. As to the States being in possession of the Right to import, this was the case with many other rights, now to be properly given up. He held it essential in every point of view, that the General Government should have the power to prevent slavery." (Comments by James Madison in brackets. Madison's Notes on the Federal Convention of 1787. Speech by George Mason, August 22, 1787. Also Max Farrand, The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1911, Volume 2, p. 370.)

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Chapter 15—America’s Greatest Exports — Freedom and Christianity

     The early colonial leaders and clergy firmly believed that hand of Providence had formed the United States of America and guided, protected and inspired the patriots and statesmen throughout the revolt against Great Britain, the drafting of the Declaration of Independence, the Revolutionary War, the formation of the early State Constitutions, the drafting of the U. S. Constitution, the writing of the Bill of Rights, the launching of the new national government in 1791 and the drafting George Washington’s Farewell Address.

     The Pilgrims, Puritans, early settlers, ministers, pastors, clergy, farmers, shop owners, craftsmen and women, patriots and statesmen of colonial America also believed that the Holy Bible was the Word of God and it served as the Ancient Constitution for them as they designed the charters of liberty for America. No other book was referred to or quoted from 1620 to 1820 more than the Holy Bible. It formed the foundation of liberty in America. America became the most free and prosperous nation on earth because of the political, economic and religious liberties bequeathed to the posterity of those early settlers.

America is the Cradle of Liberty

     America is the cradle of liberty for the entire world.     James Madison wrote, "The free system of government we have established is so congenial with reason, with common sense, and a universal feeling, that is must produce approbation and a desire of imitation, as avenue may be found for truth to the knowledge of nations. Our country, if it does justice to itself, will be the Workshop of Liberty to the Civilized World, and do more than any other for the uncivilized." (Adrienne Koch, Power, Morals, and the Founding Fathers, p. 105.)

     Thomas Jefferson wrote, "The Republican is the only form of government which is not eternally at open or secret war with the rights of mankind, my prayers and efforts shall be cordially distributed to the support of that we have so deeply established. It is indeed an animating thought, that while we are securing the rights of ourselves and our posterity, we are pointing out the way to struggling nations, who wish like us to emerge from their tyrannies also. Heaven help their struggles, and lead them, as it has done us, triumphantly through the. (Koch, p. 151.)

America Is the Lord's Base of Operations

     America is also the Lord's Base of Operations for the last days. It is from America that Christianity is sent throughout the world. In 1799 Dr. Jedediah Morse wrote, "To the kindly influence of Christianity we owe that degree of civil freedom, and political and social happiness which mankind now enjoy. In proportion as the genuine effects of Christianity are diminished in any nation, either through unbelief, or the corruption of its doctrines, or the neglect of its institutions; in the same proportion will the people of that nation recede from the blessings of genuine freedom....

     "Whenever the pillars of Christianity shall be overthrown, our present republican forms of government, and all the blessings which flow from them, must fall with them."

     Daniel Webster wrote, "Finally, let us not forget the religious character of our origin. Our fathers were brought hither by t heir high veneration for the Christian religion. They journeyed by its light, and labored in its hope. They sought to incorporate its influence through all their institutions, civil, political, or literary. Let us cherish these sentiments, and Extend this Influence still more widely; in the full conviction, that that is the happiest society which partakes in the highest degree of the mild and peaceful spirit of Christianity."

     On October 4, 1790 Samuel Adams stated, "Let divines and philosophers, statesmen and patriots, unite

their endeavors to renovate the age, by impressing the minds of men with the importance of educating their little boys and girls, of inculcating in the minds of youth the fear and love of the Deity and universal philanthropy, and, in subordination to these great principles, the love of their country; of instructing them in the art of self-government without which they never can act a wise part in the government of societies, great or small; in short, of leading them in the study and practice of the exalted virtues of the Christian system...."

Promote the Teachings of the King James Version of the Holy Bible

     The great preacher of the Great Awakening in the 1720s stated, "Diffuse the knowledge, of the Bible, and the hungry will be fed, and the naked clothed. Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and the stranger will be sheltered, the prisoner visited, and the sick ministered unto. Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and Temperance will rest upon a surer basis that any mere private pledge or public statue.

     "Diffuse the knowledge of the Bible, and the peace of the world will be secured by more substantial safeguards that either the mutual fear, or the reciprocal interests, of princes or of people. Diffuse the knowledge of the bible, and the day will be hastened, as it can be hastened in no other way, when every yoke shall be loosened, and every bond broken, and when there shall be no more leading into captivity..."

     America is a under a divine decree to uphold and promote the principles of Christianity and liberty for all mankind. Our greatest exports, while very important, are not goods and services. They are the principles of Christianity and Liberty!

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Part II — Under Siege ─ The Secular War against the Holy Scriptures

Chapter 16 —The Holy Bible — The Foundation of Reality

Part I — A Divine Standard to Judge All Things

     The publication of the King James Version of the Holy Bible in 1611 heralded the beginning of a revolution throughout the English speaking world. For the first time in history the common man and woman had access to the writings of the holy prophets and the Savior of the world. Thirty nine books were assembled and inserted into the Old Testament. Twenty seven books were assembled and put into the New Testament.

     The title page to the King James version reads: The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments. Translated Out of the Original Tongues: And With the Former Translations Diligently Compared and Revised By His Majesty's Special Command.

Old Testament

     In the Old Testament, the following books were written by the holy prophets whom God has raised up:

     —Genesis

—Exodus

     —Leviticus

     —Numbers

     —Deuteronomy

     —Isaiah

     —Jeremiah

     —Lamentations

     —Ezekiel

     —Daniel

     —Hosea

     —Joel

     —Amos

     —Jonah

     —Micah

     —Nahum

     —Habakkuk

     —Zephaniah

     —Haggai

     —Zechariah

     —Malachi

     After the Savior began His mission on earth, he organized His church and called and ordained apostles to spread the gospel of Jesus Christ throughout the lands.

New Testament

     In the New Testament, the following books were written by the apostles:

     —Matthew

     —John

     —The Acts

     —The Epistle to the Romans

     —1 Corinthians

     —2Corinthians

     —Galatians

     —Ephesians

     —Philippians

     —1 Thessalonians

     —2 Thessalonians

     —1 Timothy

     —2 Timothy

     —Titus

     —Philemon

     —To the Hebrews

     —The Epistle of James

     —1 Peter

     —2 Peter

     —1 John

     —2 John

     —3 John

     —Jude

     —Revelation

     In addition, scholars in the Middle East and around the world have preserved various manuscripts known as the Apocrypha. These manuscripts were sacred books to the Jewish people but were not placed into the Hebrew Bible. Although not officially accepted as scripture, they are, nonetheless, very valuable in shedding additional light on the periods of the Old and New Testaments.

Books of the Apocrypha

     The Books of the Apocrypha include:

     —The First Book of Esdras

     —The Second book of Esdras

     —The Book of Tobit

     —The Book of Judith

     —The Book of Ester

     —The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon

     —The Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus

     —The Book of Barach

     —The Epistle of Jeremy

     —The Song of the Three Children

     —The History of Susanna

     —Bel and the Dragon

     —The Prayer of Manasses

     —The First Book of the Maccabees     

     —The Second book of the Maccabees

     —Psalms of Solomon

     —The Book of Enoch

     —The Apocalypse of Baruch

     —The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

     —The Assumption of Moses

     —The Book of Jubilees

     —The Sibylline Oracles

     —The Book of Adam and Eve

     Although these books have gone through the hands of many scribes, they still contain valuable information and tend to substantiate and authenticate the Holy Bible.

Dead Sea Scrolls

     In addition to the Books of the Apocrypha, recent discoveries between 1947 and 1956 in the area of Qumram, near the Dead Sea in the Holy Land, have uncovered a unique set of scrolls, which, also substantiate the teachings and authenticity of the Holy Bible. Large manuscripts were found rolled up in jars in dark caves by goat herders. Over the years the manuscripts have been translated. They are written in Hebrew and some of the manuscripts are dated back to 200 B. C. The translators in Israel have found complete copies or fragments of every books in the Old Testament except for Esther.

     The Dead Sea Scrolls are considered to be one of the greatest archaeological discoveries in the world.

The Holy Bible Defines the Nature of Reality

     Throughout the Holy Bible we find that God raised up prophets and apostles to speak unto the inhabitants of the earth. Beginning with the placement of Adam and Eve upon the earth, we find that God has spoken to his children through divinely called servants who were empowered to share the gospel with mankind. The Holy Bible contains the teachings, principles, doctrines, ordinances, covenants, commandments, laws and prophecies of God and His servants—the prophets and apostles. Collectively they are referred to as the Gospel.

The Creation, the Fall of Adam and the Atonement of Jesus Christ

     The Holy Bible is a compilation of the visions, dreams, angelic appearances, miracles and divine aid given to people on earth throughout early history. The Holy Bible contains faith-promoting stories and deep doctrines. It describes the Creation, the Fall of Adam and the Atonement of Jesus Christ is clear and precise language. It boldly pronounces that Jesus broke the bonds of death and brought to pass the resurrection for all mankind. It points to the happiness on earth and happiness in future worlds.

God Has the Authority and Power to Define Reality

     The Holy Bible is the Word of God. It defines truth as things as they really were, really are and really will be in the future. Since God is the Supreme Governor of the universe and the Great Creator of all life forms, He alone has the Authority and Power to define reality. Therefore, the Christian worldview, which is totally, completely and exclusively based upon the Holy Bible, defines reality as long as it stays within the clear and precise boundaries of the Holy Scriptures.

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Part II — Keys to Judging the Philosophies of Men

     The King James Version of the Holy Bible and its teachings are the Word of God. The analysis and commentary in this volume are derived completely and exclusively from the King James Version of the Holy Bible— the most reliable translation available in the world today.

     In analyzing the philosophies of men we will use the following principles or guidelines:

     1.     Everything which is good is inspired of God.

     2.     Everything which invites men to go good and serve others is inspired of God.

     3.     Every thing which teaches people to love God is inspired of God .

     4.     Everything which teaches people to believe in Jesus Christ is inspired of God.

     5.     Every thing which is evil come from the Adversary, evil spirits and evil men.

     6.     A man being evil will not do good or give a good gift.

     7.     The Adversary is an enemy to God and fights against him continually.

     8.     The Adversary invites men to fight against God and to do evil continually.

     9.     The Adversary seeks to persuade men to deny the existence of God continually.

     10.     The Adversary seeks to persuade men to not serve God continually.

     11.     The Adversary seeks to persuade men to deny the existence of Jesus Christ continually.

     12.     The Adversary seeks to persuade men to deny the teachings of the prophets and apostles

continually.

     13.     The Adversary seeks to persuade men to deny the divinity of the Holy Bible continually.

     14.     The Adversary seeks to persuade men to deny the divinity of each person on earth continually.

     15.     Evil spirits seek to persuade men to deny the existence of God and Jesus Christ continually.

     16.     Evil men seek to persuade men to deny the existence of God and Jesus Christ continually.

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Chapter 17 — The Rise of Agnosticism and Atheism in Europe

     Throughout history there have always been individuals who did not want to listen to God and obey his commandments. The rebellion against God and his laws began with the war in heaven where Michael and his angels fought against Lucifer and his angels. Lucifer and one third of the hosts of heaven which were assigned to come to this earth were cast out of heaven and placed here on earth. As John the Revelator tells us, "the dragon was wroth" and he "went to make war" against those who love God and seek to keep his commandments.

     From the time Cain slew Abel and became the first master of evil on earth, there have always been individuals and groups which have rebelled against God. They have sought numerous ways to justify their evil behavior and practices. The flood was sent to destroy all but eight individuals when the wickedness became so intense and widespread on the earth that God said the cup of iniquity was full. Noah and his family were saved and the remainder of the earth's inhabitants was destroyed in the worldwide flood.

Prophets Warn the People to Repent Before the Flood

     Before the flood came, God sent prophets to warn and warn and warn the people. They refused to listen to a host of prophets, including the great Enoch. The latter was saved along with an entire city and taken to heaven.

God Bestows the Gift of Free Agency upon Every Person

     The Holy Scriptures tell us that one of the greatest gifts which God has bestowed upon his children on earth is the gift of free agency, freedom of choice or free will. We are allowed to choose between alternatives such as good and evil, right and wrong, light and darkness, freedom and tyranny. While we are free to choose, we are not free of the consequences of our choice. Each person on earth is accountable to God for the choices he or she makes on earth. On Judgment Day we will each give an accounting of our lives to God and reap eternal rewards or eternal punishment. The choice is ours. God will not force the human mind, unlike Lucifer who uses force to promote his evil plans on earth.

The Law of Opposition in Full Force on Earth

     The Holy Scriptures also tell us that the law of opposition is in full force on earth. We must choose between them. Either we follow God and His Son or we follow Lucifer, evil spirits and evil men and women. Either we strive to keep the commandments and laws of God or we strive to live after the manner of the world, which is Babylon. Once again the choices are placed before us and God is watching to see what we will do. Although we cannot see God, He is watching every move we make here on earth. Every word we speak, every thought that enters our mind and every deed we perform on earth is being recorded. The Holy Scriptures assure us that the judgment will be perfect.

Cain and His Followers Rebels against God and Set up a Separate Society

     After the rebellion of Cain, he left the area where Adam has settled and began to establish a separate society. Adam and his righteous sons and daughters followed God and the followers of Cain followed Lucifer. Once the wickedness became so great, God sent the flood to destroy all but Noah and his family. The descendants Cain who rebelled against God were removed from the face of the earth.

     After the flood, Noah and his family multiplied and soon the Egyptian Empire was founded. Once against people began to worship false Gods, while the righteous among the descendants of Noah worshiped God. Eventually Jacob would raise up a righteous posterity and they would become know as the House of Israel.

One Empire Rises after Another after the Flood

     After the flood the descendants of Noah and his family began spreading throughout the Middle East, Asia and Europe. The Greek Empire was followed by the Roman Empire and the Hapsburg Empire and so on.

     Since the beginning of time, man has either obeyed God or rebelled against Him. Those who have rebelled have formed numerous false Gods, false religions and false philosophies to justify their evil practices and deeds. One of the most pernicious false doctrines to arise on earth is that atheism. This philosophy simply states that there is no God and no moral absolutes. This philosophy was prevalent in ancient Greece, Rome and Medieval Europe. The philosophy of atheism and its twin, agnosticism, is upheld and promoted by the elite in society.

The Philosophy of Atheism is Handed Down

from Generation to Generation

     The philosophy of atheism is handed down from generation to generation among the educated portion of society. The common people throughout history have been humble and God-fearing. Atheism and agnosticism reside among the educated and elite in society. Atheists and agnostics seek to find ways to justify their rebellion against God and his laws. When these philosophies were invented in ancient Greece and Rome, its followers simply decided to believe that God does not exist. It was simply a belief system. And since atheism and agnosticism was upheld and promoted by the elite and educated among society, it was not challenged by the common people in society. The ancient philosophers who promoted atheism spent their entire lives perfecting a belief system that justified their rebellion against God and his laws. Every rhetorical device known to man and devils was employed to expand and perfect this philosophy. Stripped of all its rhetorical camouflage, it is simply a belief system based on the philosophies of men and precepts of men.

Atheism and Agnosticism Form the Foundation of Tyranny

     Atheism and agnosticism are also the foundation of tyranny. Those to seek to rule over and enslave others must first remove a faith in God and his laws, which include the law of liberty. The philosophy of atheism and agnosticism was invented to remove the unalienable rights of mankind, the natural rights of mankind and the laws of nature. All of these rights are based upon a belief that God is the Author of liberty and that He has bestowed upon mankind a set of rights that cannot be removed or eliminated my man.

     Of course, if your objective is to establish one form of tyranny or another, you must first remove a faith in God and his existence. Once you remove faith in God from society, you next remove a belief in the unalienable rights of mankind and replace them with man-made laws. These laws, which are drafted by the state, justify the tyranny that has been imposed upon the people.

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Chapter 18 —The School of Higher Criticism

     In 1611 the King James Version of the Holy Bible was published. Now the Holy Scriptures were made available to the common man. Before this time the scriptures were the exclusive domain of monarchs, priests, monks and scholars and were kept in private libraries. Most of the people in Europe had difficulty even reading and writing. They had never read the verses and passages of the Holy Scriptures for themselves.

The Reformation and Protestant Movement

     The publication of the Holly Scriptures (King James Version was published in 1611) brought about the Reformation as clergy in England and Europe rebelled against the tyranny of the Church of Rome. Martin Luther, John Calvin, John Wycliffe and a host of other noble men and women rebelled against this tyranny and sought religious liberty. The Protestant Movement was born and new congregations and churches began to arise in Europe and England. Of course, members of these groups were severely persecuted and tried for heresy and either imprisoned in dungeons, beheaded or burned at the stake. They fled England and Europe and came to America where they set up various churches along in the new English colonies.

Scholars and Priests Devise Ways to Attack the Holy Scriptures

     Once the Holy Scriptures were published the scholars and priests who had embraced agnosticism and atheism went to work. Now their greatest enemy—the Holy Bible—was in the hands of the common man. God had rescued the Holy Scriptures from the private libraries of Europe and given it to the people. The intellectual and spiritual tyranny of the monks, priests and scholars was threatened in a major way. They had to devise a new strategy to defeat those who believed in the literal teachings of the Holy Bible. They formed a new school—the School of Higher Criticism. The priests sought to maintain their spiritual tyranny over the minds of men and the scholars sought to maintain their intellectual tyranny over the minds of men. They formed a strategic alliance to maintain their positions of authority and power.

A New School Design to Uphold and Promote Atheism

     The goal of this new school was to uphold the basic tenets of agnosticism and atheism and to destroy faith in the Holy Bible and its teachings. They started analyzing the scriptures and started to devise ways to attack it from every angle. They would begin attacking the prophets—the authors of the books of the Old Testament. They began attacking the apostles—the authors of the books of the New Testament. They would begin attacking the existence of God. They would begin attacking the Creation, the Fall of Adam, the divine birth of Jesus Christ, the miracles performed by Jesus in His earthly ministry, the Atonement of Jesus in Gethsemane and upon the cross, the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day, and all of laws, teachings, commandments, ordinances of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. They would begin to attack the miracles in the Old Testament and the New Testament. They would begin attacking the authorship of each of the books of the Bible, the prophecies of the prophets and apostles and attempt to point out contradictions in the scriptures.

The Powers of Darkness Aid Those Scholars and Priests

Seeking to Destroy the Holy Bible

     In their effort to destroy the Holy Bible, a belief in the existence of God and His Son and the gospel of Jesus Christ, they would resort to every evil rhetorical device their dark minds could conjure up. Of course, in this process they would be aided by the Prince of Darkness and a host of evil spirits who rebelled against God and Jesus Christ in the war in heaven.

     The scholars who support, defend and promote agnosticism and atheism declared war on God and His Son, the gospel of Jesus Christ and the Holy Bible. This is a very real war which affects every person on earth, even though, they might not be aware of its existence. The War which began in Heaven is raging on earth. This war continued once Adam and Eve left the confines of the Garden of Eden and entered the natural world after the Fall of Adam. Only the battlefield has changed. The players are still the same. The issues are still the same. The choices are still the same. Do we follow God and His Son or do we follow Lucifer, evil spirits and evil men and women?

     The School of Higher Criticism has published a host of pamphlets and books which describe the Holy Bible as simply a collection of myths and fairy tales.

The School of Higher Criticism Splits Into Two Groups

     Soon after its establishment, the school of higher criticism devised another major strategy. They decided to make a two-front attack on the Holy Scriptures. One group would focus on attacking every aspect of the Holy Bible. This group would be made up of scholars and philosophers. Another group, also a group of scholars would focus on attacking the Holy Scriptures from a scientific point of view. They would attacking Biblical catastrophism and replace it with new theories designed to undermine faith and believe in God and the creation timetable outlined in the Holy Bible. They would invent a new geological time table and conjure up an ancient theory which states that man evolved from lower life forms.

     The School of Higher Criticism was composed of two areas—the School of Philosophy and Religion and the School of Science. The scholars and priests in these two schools went to work to undermine the faith of people in God and His Son and the Holy Scriptures. For four centuries these scholars and priests have used every method at their disposal to promote agnosticism and atheism and to undermine faith in God and the Holy Scriptures.

Control of Knowledge Thought Compartmentalization of Academic Disciplines

     The two divisions of the School of Higher Criticism form a powerful force to battle on earth. The early

monasteries of Europe gradually evolved into medieval universities. These early universities then compartmentalized various academic disciplines in order to control knowledge. Later the intelligence organizations of the world would structure their agencies in a similar fashion. The goal of the early university and the early intelligence organizations that soon emerged in Germany, France and England was to control the flow of information and knowledge. The university provided the perfect setting to do so.

     The priests and monks controlled the early monasteries of Europe. The scholars would become the new high priests of education in the universities which developed and spread throughout the world. The robes of the priests and monks would even follow the scholars into the university.

A Global War is Raging Between Atheism and Christianity

     The warfare that is raging throughout the world today in not between the truths of the Holy Bible and the truths of science. It is between the truths of the Holy Bible and the false theories, philosophies, teachings, hypotheses, doctrines and belief systems of men which are based upon agnosticism and atheism. Revelation from God is always superiors to the philosophies of men. The Holy Bible is paramount in all academic disciplines. The Holy Bible is the standard by which to judge all academic disciplines whether in the social sciences or the sciences. Whenever any scientific theory or theory of the social sciences violates the teachings of the Holy Bible they are null and void.

Scholars Teach All Manner of False Doctrines on the Earth

     The School of Higher Criticism is spreading the tenets of agnosticism and atheism throughout the world today. The School of Higher Criticism has given birth to a host of false philosophies, all of which are based upon agnosticism and atheism.

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Chapter 19 — Charles Lyell Seeks To Replace Biblical Catastrophism

     Charles Lyell (1797-1875) was born in Scotland in 1797, he went to Oxford University to study law and became a layer in 1825. However, he had developed an interest in geology and decided to give up the practice of law. Since his father was quite wealthy, it was an easy choice for him. He joined the Linnean Society and wrote several articles on science and education. In 1826, while only 29 year old he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. The Royal society was an elitist organization. However, they were very interested in evolutionary geology and Lyell seems a natural to follow in the footsteps of Hutton. Lyell was also a suburb writer. The Royal Society was maneuvering and guiding a young scholar to promote the theory of evolution in a world that still believed in the Holy Bible and catastrophic events such as the great Flood.

Lyell Becomes a Disciple of Lamarck

     Lyell had developed an interest in geology while at Oxford and one summer made a trip to Paris where he met Constant Prevost. Prevost was a student of Lamarck. He introduced Lyell to the works of Lamarck. The two became close friends and went on a geological tour of southwest England.

     For the next six year Lyell studied geology and philosophy while making frequent trips to Europe to meet with scholars interested in evolution and geology. While in Europe Lyell had met key members of the School of Higher Criticism and they were training him and pushing his career along in order to further their cause.

Lyell Becomes a Disciple of Hutton

     While traveling back and forth between Europe and England, Lyell became an avid student of James Hutton. Lyell's future books would be based almost entirely upon the writings of James Hutton. It was Hutton who was labeled an atheist after he published his famous treatise entitled Theory of the Earth in 1795.

     After the death of James Hutton, Lyell decided to continue his work. He traveled throughout Europe and the British Isles trying to find evidence for Hutton's theories that the earth had developed and changed slowly over eons of time. He studied the erosion of cliffs, contorted and twisted rock formations and began to develop a case for evolutionary geology. He stated that the changes on the earth were the result of slow processes rather past catastrophes.

Lyell Uses Rhetorical Devices to Conceal Truth

     The various twisted rock formations in different parts of the earth has the appeared to be caused by past catastrophes of one type or another. This posed a problem for Lyell. He was a clever attorney and a gifted writer. It was not long before he soon found a cunning way to get around the evidence. Lyell imposed his vivid imagination on the evidence and argued that the twisted and contorted rock formations were the result of slow processes over time, however, they only appeared to have been caused by catastrophes in the past because of the "imperfection of the geological record." Lyell has just invented a rhetorical argument and pretended it was scientific in nature. It was a very deceptive argument, one that only a person trained in the law may have invented. In the future, every time, Lyell was presented with evidence he could not quickly explain away, he would resort to the "imperfection of the geological record" argument.

A Careful Plan to Overthrow the Holy Bible

     Lyell and his group of friends in Europe knew that they were laying the foundation for the overthrow of the Holy Bible. It was a sinister plot to destroy faith in God and the Holy Scriptures. Jean Bapiste Lamarck, James Hutton, Charles Lyell and others knew exactly what they were doing. This was not just a group of men seeking for truth in the realm of science. They were trying to conceal a deadly and poisonous philosophy within the confines of science to give in credibility. It was an evil attempt to use science to further their aims of promoting agnosticism and atheism. They also realized that they would have to go slowly in order not to arose too much opposition to their work in Europe and England.

Creation of So-Called Experts

     James Hutton and Charles Lyell had been careful to build a case for their new theory and wrap it carefully in scientific terms and observations. In addition, once you structure the university into department and compartmentalize knowledge, then you have created small pockets of so-called experts. Since few people become geologists or biologists, it is east for them to accuse the common man and woman of ignorance.

     Lyell also adopted the practice of arguing from today's observations rather than past catastrophes which no one witnessed. His arguments are mere conjecture based upon evidence that he cannot produce. It is an argument from observation and personal opinion, not an argument from facts.

     Lyell and his friends knew that tremendous religious opposition was going to erupt over their new theory of an expanded time frame for the development of the earth. The evidence did not support their theory and they knew it; that is why they spend so much time carefully constructing in within the confines of science.

     A cunning lawyer had devised a theory that the earth was millions of years old. However, he had no evidence to prove his theory and could only use present day rock formations to make an argument for something that happened in the past.

Lyell's Clever Arguments to Undermine Faith in the Universal Flood

     Lyell adopted another clever tactic. Rather than outright deny the Flood which is what they had originally planned, they decided to use a clever argument. Lyell stated that if the flood did occur, it was probably just a local event, not a covering of the entire earth as stated in the Holy Bible. Once again, we have a lawyer making pronouncement of a rhetorical nature and people in prominent places are giving them credence because they know of the overall plan to destroy faith in the Holy Bible and replace it with agnosticism and atheism.

     After traveling for six years and making the case for his new theory, Lyell was ready to announce to the world that the Holy Bible was just a collection of myths and legends. According to Lyell, there was no Creation, no Fall of Adam, no universal Flood, no Atonement of Jesus Christ and no Holy Bible. There was just pure science. And he was just a humble scientist in search of truth. He just happened to stumble upon a new theory that enthroned Atheism and dethroned God. All in a days work for the brilliant Scottish lawyer who pretended to be a geologist.

The Theory of Uniformitarianism

     The new theory which Lamarck, Hutton and Lyell had finally developed was called uniformitarianism. It stated that all of the natural processes occurring today have been occurring at the same rate since the earth was formed billions of years ago. During the years of 1830-1833 Lyell published a three volume work entitled, The

Principles of Geology where the new theory was carefully wrapped in scientific observations and language in order to deceive the people on earth. Biblical catastrophicism was now supposed to be a dead issue. However, Lyell's theory is just a theory. It is based upon a set of personal beliefs. And it is pure philosophy in scientific language.

     Charles Darwin would use the same strategy in a few years when he published his Origin of Species. It too would be a philosophy carefully wrapped in scientific observations and language in order to deceive people. And like Lyell's theory, Darwin’s theory is just a theory. Both of these men had a hidden agenda, which the scientific community in England, France and Germany have been very careful to conceal. That hidden agenda deals with the School of Higher Criticisms of which both Lyell and Darwin were secret members.

Major Catastrophe Hits the Earth in 1815

     It is interesting to note that just before Lyell published his theory of uniformitarianism, that Mt. Tambora (near Java) exploded in 1815. It was one of the greatest volcanic explosions in history. It was ten times more powerful that the Kratatoa explosion in 1883. In both of these catastrophic events, thousands of people lot their lives and the earth's atmosphere was filled with dust for weeks. Lyell had to admit that Mt. Tambora was a catastrophic event, but he deluded himself and others into believing that such occurrences played no part in the development of the earth.

     Lyell and his followers have quickly adopted the argument that whenever a catastrophic event occurs it is just a local event. To those who saw the effects of Mt. Saint Helen in the state of Washington they might not agree. The Holy Bible tells of several major geologic events that occurred in the past such as the division of the earth into continents in the Days of Peleg, the breakup up of the earth's surface as a result of the Universal Flood, the major geological eruptions and changes that occurred at the time of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. There are numerous prophecies about the second coming of Jesus Christ in which the continents will return to one land mass. Their will be giant tidal waves and a multitude of other geologic catastrophes.

The Theory of Uniformity Is Divided into Two Parts

     The theory of uniformitarianism is divided into two major areas. The first part of the theory states that all natural processes on earth have occurred in the same uniform manner. The second part of the theory calls for a new time table to explain these slow naturally occurring processes.

Fossils Found in Rock Strata

     About the time that Lyell was perfecting his new theory, a canal builder in England noticed that various rock formations usually had several layers or strata which contained different fossils. His name was William Smith and he made the first geologic map of England. Lyell was aware of Smith's observations rock was layered and each layer contained different fossils.

     Lyell decided to support his theory with another observation from nature. Lyell reasoned that sedimentary deposits win rocks were the result of a slow process over eons of time. Since there were rock formations that contained sedimentary deposits that were thousands of feet thick, he argued that they were the result of a slow sedimentary process such is found to take place in rivers and lakes.

     Lyell argued that somehow various lakes and stream beds had been elevated and thus drained in the past (a catastrophic event in itself) thus it dried into rock. Within the layers could be found different fossils. He imagined that various areas were flooded and dried and flooded and dried again as the process occurred repeatedly in the past. Such events produced the layer strata where the fossils could be found.

Lyell Cannot Account for Large Vertical Movement in Mountains

     Lyell could not account for the giant vertical movements of rock formation such as in Zion's National Park and elsewhere in the Rocky Mountains and along the entire mountain chains from Alaska to the tip of South America.

     Lyell and his associates in Germany and France were carefully laying the groundwork for Darwin's theory which they were planning on introducing sometime after they had introduced the theory of uniformitarianism. When Lyell published his three volume work entitled, The Principles of Geology, he carefully and purposely avoided using the tern evolution. He knew that it would cause people to reject his new theory outright. The people in the western world had to be prepared slowly for Darwin. Lyell carefully used such words as, "mutability," "transmutation," "development," and "progression." He knew that the natural extension of his argument would be the acceptance of evolution.

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Chapter 20 — Charles Darwin Seeks to Replace the Holy Bible

     Although it is not commonly known, Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin (1809-1882 ) were very close friends and associates. Darwin followed the lead of Lyell and began compiling observations from nature that he could use to justify his new theory that species evolved over eons of time through a natural process which he would call natural selection. The scholarly community likes to pretend that Lyell was opposed to the transmutation or evolution of species. This is not true. Lyell knew the importance of Darwin's theory. Lyell laid the foundation for the complete destruction of the Holy Bible with his theory of uniformity. Darwin put the capstone in place with his theory of evolution and natural selection.

The Rise of Lyellism and Darwinism Was Not an Accident

     The rise of these two new theories, which are both based on agnosticism and atheism, was not an accident. The School of Higher Criticism, based in Germany with branches in France and England, knew that these theories would catapult Atheism and Agnosticism into the intellectual community around the world.

The new theories were carefully designed. The academic world would have you believe that Lyell and Darwin just stumbled on their theories and announced t hem to the world. Nothing could be further from the truth. The School of Higher Criticism has carefully groomed, supported and encouraged a number of intellectuals to challenge the authenticity of the Holy Bible.     These theories were carefully crafted and designed over several decades in order to destroy the Holy Bible.

Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin Knew

That Their Writings Would Destroy Faith in God

     Once Lyell and Darwin had carefully developed, polished and published their theories, they would let others take the lead and indoctrinate the intellectuals of the world in agnosticism and atheism. To pretend that these men did not understand the importance of The Principles of Geology and Origin of Species insults their intelligence. They knew exactly what they had done and they published their theories fully cognizant of the impact they would have on the world—the complete destruction of a belief in God and the Holy Scriptures. Emma Darwin (1807-1896) knew these facts and had a lot of written material removed from the writings of Charles Darwin to prevent the world from learning the truth about her husband.

Over 6000 Words Deleted from the Autobiography of Charles Darwin

     In 1876 Charles Darwin wrote his autobiography. He was almost seventy years old at the time. However, Emma Darwin had her son, Francis Darwin, edit the book before it was published. The world would wait for over 75 years to learn than over 6000 words were removed that might have shed a different light on Darwin. In 1958, Darwin's granddaughter, Lady Barow, published the compete autobiography. In addition, Darwin was a meticulous note keeper. His correspondence for the years of 1856-1859 had been missing until they were discovered among the writings of Charles Lyell. The missing pages of the autobiography and the missing notebooks reveal the true nature of Charles Darwin. He is not the patron Saint of the Intellectual World that he is presented to be.

School of Higher Criticism Seeks to Infiltrate Church to Secularize Their Teachings

     The School of Higher Criticism was very active at this time. In addition, to preparing scholarly books which attacked every aspect of the Holy Bible, they began the process of infiltrating various churches in order to neutralize their teachings and gradually secularize their doctrines. One church which was important at this time was the Unitarian Church.

     The process of secularizing the churches is important to the School of Higher Criticism because the members learn to trust their clergy, pastor, reverent, bishop or priest. More often than not, the members rely on their minister to teach them the truth, however, if they do no study the Holy Scriptures themselves, how will they know when they are being mislead or deceived. The church and its secular views would influence the young Darwin.

Charles Darwin Goes to Edinburgh to Study Medicine

     Charles Darwin was raised in a town called Shrewsbury. His father was a medical doctor. At age sixteen he was sent by his father to Edinburgh to study medicine. Since his grandfather has been a famous doctor, it was assumed that Charles would follow in their footsteps. He spend two years at medical school and decided to drop out because of his dislike for operations.

Charles Darwin Studies Zoonomia and Meets Students of Lamarck

     While at Edinburgh, Charles Darwin met several zoologists, geologists and botanists who were students of Lamarck. It was during his stay at Edinburgh that he began studying in earnest the writings of his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin. Erasmus Darwin is the author of the two volume work entitled, Zoonomia which was published in 1794-1796. The two volume set contained the theory of evolution and Darwin began to develop evidence for the theory. Unknown to the world in general is the knowledge that both his father and grandfather were atheists. At the time, this believe was heresy, so they kept their views in private, however, today we can see the influence which they had on Charles Darwin.

Charles Darwin Goes to Cambridge to Study Divinity

     Dr. Robert Darwin, his father decided to sent him to Christ's College in Cambridge where he became a student of theology. Charles Darwin was on his way to becoming a member of the clergy. Dr. Darwin, who was a prominent Freemason, knew that at the right time he could ensure that the right doors were opened for his son. While at Christ's College he would study mathematics, theology and the classics.

     While a student at Christ's College Charles Darwin was introduced to the famous treatise by William Paley, an Angelican clergyman, entitled, Evidences of Christianity and Moral and Political Philosophy. He also read Natural Theology where Paley outlined the case for intelligent design of the universe, the earth and all life forms by God.

Charles Darwin Acknowledges That He Was an Atheist

     Before attending Christ's College Darwin read the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith of the Church of England. He accepted the articles and wrote that he also accepted without "the least doubt the strict and literal truth of every word in the Bible." (Nora Barlow, editor, Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1958, p. 57.) Over fifty years later, Darwin acknowledged that he had become an atheist. He commented on his earlier remark about the Holy Bible and said, "It never struck me how illogical it was to say that I believed in what I could not understand and what is in fact unintelligible." That remark was edited out of the original autobiography.

     Another passage that was removed from the Autobiography concerned Judgment Day and the assigning of individuals to eternal rewards or eternal punishments. He called the teachings a "damnable doctrine," and said that such a doctrine would condemn all atheists to eternal damnation. He then made the following interesting statement, that such a punishment "would include my father, brother and almost all my best friends." (Barlow, 1958, p. 87.) He also thought the miracles contained in the Gospels were a collection of myths. He did not believe that any "sane man" would accept them. (Barlow,1958, p. 86.)

Darwin Set Sail on the HMS Beagle

     In 1831 Charles Darwin graduated from Christ's College with a B. A. degree. He was now ready to become Rev. Charles Darwin. However, instead of preaching the gospel in some small community, Darwin found himself on the HMS Beagle and began a new life as a naturalist. He had a deep interest in nature and the voyage gave him a wonderful opportunity to study the natural world. The five year voyage would change the mind of the young man forever. While on the voyage the young Darwin was continually confronted with the teachings of Christianity. Every Sunday, Robert Fitzroy, the captain, would hold church service on board the small vessel. A missionary was also on board, so Darwin was not without the gospel.

     The mission of the Beagle was to explore and map the various coast lines for navigators. For five years the vessel sailed along the coast all the while keeping detailed notes on the different life forms he found.

Darwin took several books with him on his voyage. These included: Holy Bible, Milton's Paradise Lost, Humboldt's Personal Narrative and volume I of The Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell.

     While sailing along the coast of South America, Darwin studied the geologic formations of the giant cliffs that rose over 300 feet in the air and went for miles. While on land he studied new species—birds, insects, animals—that he had never seen before.

Darwin Writes His Observations in His Journal and Remarks

     After returning from the five year voyage in 1836, Darwin spent two years writing a detailed account of his travels on board the HMS Beagle. he would finish his Journal and Remarks in 1839.

Darwin Makes a Choice between Belief in God and Atheism

     While on the Beagle Darwin had two books which completely different views on the earth. One book, the Holy Bible outlined the existence of God and explained the Creation of the Earth and the reasons for the Universal Flood.     

     The other book, The Principles of Geology, denied all of these truths and stated that all things have developed in a slow, steady, natural way. There is no God and no supra natural events such as the Creation, the Fall of Adam, the Flood, the Atonement of Jesus Christ. Darwin had to make a choice. It was a difficult choice, a choice that every person on earth has to make at one point in their life or another. And the world knows the choice he made. He chose to believe in the basic tenets of agnosticism and atheism and he rejected a believe in God and the Holy Bible. He would spend the remainder of his life promoting the theory of evolution and atheism. Darwin chose The Principles of Geology and Zoonomia over the Holy Bible. The rest is history.

Two New Theories to Attack the Holy Bible

     Charles Lyell had removed a belief in the divine creation of the earth. Darwin would remove a belief in the divine creation of man. The two theories—the theory of uniformity, and the theory of evolution—would revolutionize the intellectual world. The members of the School of Higher Criticism could not have been happier. After centuries, they had finally developed a set of theories to destroy the belief in God and the Holy Bible. As Lyell and Darwin grew older their minds became darker and darker until there was no light or truth in them.

The Origin of the Term Natural Selection

     Sometime after finishing his journal and remarks, Darwin read a book entitled, Naval Timber and Arborculture by Patrick Matthew. In this volume Darwin found the following words, "this natural process of selection." Darwin would modify these words to read, "natural means of selection." He would then shorten the phrase to "natural selection." Darwin also read the works of Edward Blyth, who wrote a series of articles on species in 1835 and 1837. His writings did not surface again until in 1909. It seems that the idea of natural selection was discussed by Matthew and Blyth.

     At this time Darwin had developed a strategy to attack the Holy Bible. He would focus on the fixity of species. If he could devise an argument that allowed the scientific world to accept the theory that all species evolved slowly over eons of time through a process of natural selection, it would only follow that man is at the end of this evolutionary change. Since Darwin did not believe in the existence of God, he had to explain the origin of life in naturalistic terms.

Darwin Keeps Secret Notebooks on Transmutation of Species

     At this time Darwin also began to keep his "secret" notebooks on the transmutation or change of species from one kind to another. He started this notebook in 1837, the same year that Edward Blyth began publishing his writings in the Magazine of Natural History.

     Darwin was aware that there was not the least bit of evidence anywhere for the idea that species evolved from one kind to another. The idea came from the imaginary mind of Darwin. We have a pretty good idea who placed the thought in his mind. The idea of transmutation attacked the Genesis account of the fixity of species squarely in the face. Darwin was secretly making the case to overthrow this basic tenet of the Holy Bible.

     Darwin kept all of this writings secret and it was not until 1844, almost nine years later, that he told a friend that, "at last gleams of light have come, and I am almost convinced (quite contrary to the opinion I started with) that species are not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable." (Francis Darwin and A. G. Seward, editors, More Letters of Charles Darwin. London: John Murray, 1903, Volume I, p. 41.)

Secret Strategy to Overthrow the Holy Bible

     Darwin knew from the beginning that he was preparing to dethrone God and eliminate him completely from the universe. This was all part of the strategy that was being promoted secretly by the School of Higher Criticism of which Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin were Scholars—in Residence.

     It is important to note that Charles Darwin did not originate the theory of evolution. Atheism has been around since the days of the Greece and the early philosophers. The theory of evolution was being updated by Darwin for presentation to the world as a new theory. This is false. The theory of evolution, like the theory of uniformity, was designed to destroy a believe in God and the Holy Bible.

     It was during this time in Darwin's life that he met and married Emma Wedgewood. It in interesting to note that he father, Dr. Robert Darwin, counseled his son not to mention his views on agnosticism and atheism to his new wife. (See Barlow, 1958, p. 95.)

Statements on Irreligion Removed from Darwin's Writings

     Darwin would later admit that, "Many years ago I was strongly advised by a friend [Charles Lyell] never to introduce anything about religion in my works, if I wished to advance science in England." (Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. New York: W. W. Norton., 1968, p. 383.) Emma Darwin and her son, Francis Darwin, would follow this advice and remove all irreligious statements from the Autobiography of Charles Darwin before it was written.

     It is also interesting to note that at the same time that Darwin began laying his detailed plans to overthrow the Book of Genesis that he began to suffer a live long illness. The illness was due, no doubt, to the psychological stress of preparing a theory that would destroy the faith of hundreds of millions of young people and adults throughout the world. (See Ralph Colp, To Be An Invalid. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977, p. 142.)

Darwin Was Obsessed with Proving His Theory was Valid

     Darwin was now completely obsessed with laying out the intellectual arguments for his new theory and the battle that would begin once he published the theory. He knew exactly what he was doing and he proceeded in a calculated and thoughtful manner. He labored in vain to find the mechanism by which evolution or transmutation of species occurred, (remember this is an imaginary process); to wrap the theory of evolution in scientific language to confuse and deceive the common man; and finally to Darwinize the theory so as to appear that he originated it, when in fact, the basic tenets of the theory are thousands of years.

     After his marriage to Emma Wedgewood, Darwin moved to the Down house in the village of Down in southern London.

     In 1859, after 22 years of secret work, Charles Darwin published his famous book entitled, The Origin of Species. However, time seems to bring the truth to the surface and out into the open.. It is no different with the publication of the Origin of Species. The publication of the book was carefully managed by members of the School of Higher Criticism.

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Chapter 21—Theistic Evolution — the Seduction of the Clergy

     Earlier we noted that the School of Higher Criticism has two areas which it had targeted for penetration. The first area was the sciences and social sciences. With the publication of The Principles of Geology and the Origin of Species, the School would soon gain control of the sciences and the social sciences. The second area targeted for control was the churches. For centuries priests has maintained a spiritual tyranny over the mind of man by controlling access to the Holy Scriptures. The invention of the printing press challenged the power of the priests and they fought it bitterly. However, God had decreed that the common people on earth would have the Word of God and He prevailed.

Infiltrate the Schools of Divinity

     While the School of Higher Criticism was busy penetrating the sciences and social sciences, it was burrowing into the clergy and churches. Here they developed a two-fold attack strategy. First, they would set up scholars in religion who would use the same strategy as the philosophers. They would question every aspect of the Holy Bible. They would deny the existence of miracles. They would argue over authorship of various books, etc. Every argument they advanced was designed to weaken the faith of those who believed in God and the Holy Bible.

Secularize the Churches in the Western World

The goal was to secularize the churches in the Western World. The School of Higher Criticism would use so-called members of the clergy (actually they had lost their testimonies long ago and were using the robes of their profession to deceive other and lead them away from God and Jesus Christ and His gospel.) They would insidiously attack the Holy Scriptures and question every aspect of them until the people lost faith and hope in the gospel of Jesus Christ.

     The so-called members of the clergy joined the ranks of the secular philosophers would were spending full time developing arguments and attack strategies to destroy faith in God. Their strategy was one of constant, unrelenting criticism of the Holy Bible. Their goal was to get people to doubt the validity of the basic teachings, principles, doctrines, laws, commandments, ordinances, covenants, miracles and prophecies of the Holy Bible.

An Attack on Miracles in the Holy Bible

     Listen to the words of David Strauss (1808-1874) a German theologian and member of the School of Higher Criticism. He said, "Vainly did we philosophers and critical theologians over and over again decree the extermination of miracles; out ineffectual sentence died away, because we could neither dispense with miraculous agency, nor point to any natural force able to supply it, where it hitherto seemed most indispensable. Darwin had demonstrated this force, this process of nature; he has opened the door which a happier race will cast our miracles, never to return. Everyone who knows what miracles imply will praise him, in consequence, as one of the greatest benefactors of the human race." (David F. Strauss, The Old Faith and the New: a Confession. London: Asher, 1873, p. 205.)

John Wesley Leads a Revival in England in the 1700s

     Fortunately God had raised up such great men as John Wesley to lead the great revival in England in the 1700s otherwise, the School of Higher Criticism would have overrun the nation. Wesley and the clergy in England fought valiantly against the atheistic philosophies and secular doctrines originating from Germany and France.

     In 1836, just a few years after Charles Lyell published The Principles of Geology, Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, a leader in the Roman Catholic community in England gave a series of twelve lectures where he abandoned the Genesis record of the Creation and embraced the law of uniformity.

Catholic Church in Germany Denies the Universal Flood

     In Germany, under the leadership of professor Reusch (1866) at Bonn University, the Roman Catholic Church began to deny the Universal Flood. The German philosophers and theologians were unrelenting in casting doubt about the authenticity of the Holy Scriptures. Their influence would trickle down among the churches and the people would be led astray. Eventually the tenets of Darwinism reached into the sanctuary of the churches and the leaders of the people began to accept them in order to maintain their popularity with the leading scholars and clergy of the day. The secularization of the churches was well underway.

School of Higher Criticism Introduces Theistic Evolution

     One of the cleverest strategies that the School of Higher Criticism came up with is called theistic evolution. The atheists behind the school knew that they clergy would have to be weakened gradually. They had been weaning them from the Holy Scriptures through criticism of the Holy Bible. Now they were going to guide the clergy, priests, pastors, bishops, reverends into a new theory called theistic evolution. The School of Higher Criticism began circulating the view that God used evolution to create life and then retreated somewhere in the universe and is no longer concerned with what takes place on earth.

School of Higher Criticism Targets Spiritually Weak Clergy

     The concept of theistic evolution was designed for those who testimony of God and his Son was so weak that they could easily be seduced by the dark side of Darwin's arguments. The School of Higher Criticism purposely designed this theory to deceive the clergy knowing full well that the clergy would then deceive their congregations.

The Need for Every Person to Become a Biblical Scholar

     The tenets of theistic evolution clearly reveal the need for members of each and every church in America and throughout the world, to become doctrinal scholars and to hold their pastors, ministers, clergy, bishops, priests, reverends strictly accountable for what they teach in their congregations. The Holy Bible, not the Origin of Species, or The Principles of Geology, should be the standard text used each and every day of the week in the churches of America and the Western World.

     According to the School of Higher Criticism, (the originators of the theory of theistic evolution), the Book of Genesis is a collection of myths and legends. The Creation of earth, the placement of Adam and Eve on the earth, the Fall of Adam, the Universal Flood and the Tower of Babel are mere fables. They have persuaded some people to believe that God created the universe and they left the rest to chance. The School left Lyell and Darwin explain the world in naturalistic terms. It easy to see why certain people accept this theory, it is very convenient. You can practice a form of self-deception and claim that you believe in God, yet not in His teachings, the Creation, the Fall, the Atonement, the Resurrection, and yet live whatever lifestyle you like. If you want to break any the commandments, that is fine because God is not watching and does not really care. It is a very convenient new philosophy.

Theistic Evolution is a New Secular Religion

     Theistic evolution should be considered a new secular religion. It is pure Darwinism with a clerical robe tied around the shoulders of the agnostic and Deist.

Theistic Evolution Comes to Harvard University

     One of the leading members of the School of Higher Criticism in America was a professor of botany at Harvard by the name of Asa Gray (1810-1888). He actively supported the theory of uniformity and the theory of evolution in America from 1860 until his death in 1888. Harvard was the center of Unitarian belief in America. Gray knew that the American people were literalists when it came to interpreting the Holy Bible. He knew that Darwin's theory was a philosophy masquerading as a science. However, he became one of the greatest proponents of Darwinism and the Origin of Species in America.

     As a member of the School of Higher Criticism, he also knew the real agenda of the new theory—to promote agnosticism and atheism—and to destroy a belief in God and the Holy Bible. Therefore he adopted the new strategy and camouflaged agnosticism and atheism in the robes of an apostate priesthood. It was apostate in the sense that the clergy were abandoning a belief in the Holy Bible and accepting the tenets of Darwinism. Although they maintained their positions in the churches and schools of divinity, they had lost their real testimony of God and Jesus Christ and the Holy Bible.

Atheism is the New Foundation of Science

     Gray would write that, "Since atheistic doctrines of evolution are prevailing and likely to prevail, more or less among scientific men, I have thought it important and have taken considerable pain to show that they may be held theistically." (Hunter Dupree, Asa Gray. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959, p. 359.)

     Gray was a cunning proponent of the theory of evolution. He helped devise a strategy that would influence and deceive tens of millions of young people and adults in America. He wrote that, "The important thing to do is to develop a right evolutionary teleology, and to present the argument for design from the exquisite adaptations in such a way as to make it tell on both aides; with Christian men, that they may be satisfied with, and perchance may learn to admire, Divine works effected step by step, if need be, in a system of nature; and the anti-theistic [atheistic] people, to show that without the implication of a superintending wisdom nothing is made out, and nothing credible." (Jane L. Gray, Calendar of the Letters of Charles Robert Darwin to Asa Gray. Boston: Historical Record Survey, 1893, Volume II, p. 656.)

Theistic Evolution is Based Upon Rejection of Genesis

     Gray was setting up people to accept the transmutation of species as advocated by Darwin. He did not tell them that they would have to discard the Book of Genesis in the process.

     John Dewey, another key member of the School of Higher Criticism in America and a leading proponent of agnosticism and atheism, called Gray's plan, "design on the installment plan." (John Dewey, The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought. New York: H. Holt. 1951, p. 12.)

     Gray wrote to Charles Darwin and tried to persuade him to adopt of the strategy of theistic evolution, however, the new prophet of evolution, decided to stand firmly by the new version of the old theory. He rejected the argument and strategy. Darwin was now a confirmed atheist. He did not want to give up his high standing in the School of Higher Criticism to win a few converts in America.

Scientists, Social Scientists and Theologians Are Seduced by the Dark Side

     Darwin knew that the seduction of the science community was underway and that it would be successful; he knew that the seduction of the social sciences was underway and it would be successful; and he knew that the seduction of the clergy was underway, and that it would be successful too. Darwin knew the power of the theory of evolution and more important, he knew a great secret. He knew the forces behind the School of Higher Criticism and their determination to seduce the entire planet with the tenets of agnosticism and atheism. After all, Darwin occupied a higher position than most in the School of Higher Criticism and he was privy to the global plans to seduce the entire world with their new theories.

     In rejecting Gray's invitation to open the door to theistic evolution in America, Darwin firmly outlined his unwavering and total commitment to the School of Higher Criticism. Long ago Darwin made his choice. He chose to serve the School of Higher Criticism. He rejected Moses and the Holy Bible a long time ago. He would never turn back. He would be rewarded for his commitment and service to the School of Higher Criticism.

Darwin Unequivocally Rejects Theistic Evolution

     In 1861, Darwin wrote a letter to his close friend and ally, Charles Lyell and admitted that, "The view that each variation has been providentially arranged seems to me to make Natural Selection entirely superfluous, and indeed takes the whole case of the appearance of new species out of the range of science." Darwin would later write to Asa Gray and make the same case for pure atheism.

Darwin Argues That Chance and Chance Alone Reign

     To make the point crystal clear, Darwin would add a note to the fifth (1869) and sixth (1872) editions of the Origin of Species where he attempted to quote Aristotle in an attempt top bolster his argument and position that chance and chance alone (no providential aid) was the guiding power of natural selection. (Actually he misquoted Aristotle.) Most proponents of theistic evolution seem to conveniently ignore Darwin explicit and clear position on this matter. There was God, no providential direction and no intelligent design. Chance, not God directed the development of the universe and all life in it.

Darwin Publicly Rejects Theistic Evolution

     In 1868 Darwin public ally rebuked Asa Gray on the last page of his Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, when he wrote, "However much we may wish, we can hardly follow professor Asa Gray in his belief in lines of beneficent variation." (Charles Darwin, The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication. London: John Murray, 1868, Volume II, p. 4328.)

     Asa Gray's attempt to promote theistic evolution with Darwin failed. Darwin realized that Gray was attempting to devise a new strategy to promote Darwinism, however, as the so-called founder, he had to remain firm on his position. Although Darwin had to keep the troops in line, the School of Higher Criticism proceeded with its plans to use theistic evolution t seduce the theologians around the world. Darwin knew that it was just a strategy,. Some people, like Asa Gray actually believed the lies being foisted upon them by the School of Higher Criticism. Like a prophet, Darwin stated the doctrine quite clearly. The theory of evolution rests upon the foundation of pure atheism and naturalism. There is absolutely no room for God in any way.

Darwin Stands Firmly Supports the Philosophy of Atheism

     While Gray was attempting to devise a strategy to get people in America to believe in the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin reminded the intellectual world that the new theory which he presented in Origin of Species rests firmly and squarely upon the foundation of atheism—pure unadulterated atheism. It does not rest upon the shaky and sandy foundation of theistic evolution. Either there is a God or there is not a God. The choice is between these two areas and these two areas alone.

     Gray realized that Darwin was forcing the intellectual world to accept his views and his version of the theory of evolution. Darwin was not interested in watering down the concept because he knew that it would win over the entire academic community in a short time. Darwin, Lyell and the members of the School of Higher Criticism knew the power of the ideas they were promoting. And more importantly, they knew, what few people on earth know, they knew why they were promoting them. The School of Higher Criticism know that the majority of scholars spend their entire lives in an intellectual bubble. They rarely wonder into other academic discipline, therefore, they have a very narrow perspective on the world at large.

A New Route to Atheism and Agnosticism

     The new proponents of theistic evolution were simply promoting another route to the acceptance of agnosticism and atheism.

     The theory of theistic evolution also presented another problem for its proponents. Seven of the apostles referred to the Book of Genesis in their writings. If they were going to delete the Book of Genesis, they were going to have to throw a large portion of the New Testament as well. Nevertheless, the followers of Darwin, who were being quietly promoted by the School of Higher Criticism, continued to push theistic evolution in America.

It is interesting to note that while Gray was the leading proponent of Darwinism at Harvard, another colleague. Louis Agassiz, one of the nation's leading scientists, was its fiercest critic.

The Theory of Theistic Evolution Takes Over Yale University

     The theory of theistic evolution also arose at Yale University in the form of James Dana, a professor of geology. Dana almost single handedly converted Yale University to the position of theistic evolution by using the arguments of Asa Gray. In is ironic, that Yale, founded as a Christian school, would become a bastion of theistic evolution. It seems that Darwin was right. His ideas would eventually be adopted at colleges and universities throughout the world.

     Day by day, the clergy in American began to be indoctrinated in the tenets of higher criticism and theistic evolution, without even realizing that they were being completely manipulated by the School of Higher Criticism, headquartered in Germany.

John D. Rockefeller Promotes Theistic Evolution Throughout America

     The power of the School of Higher Criticism in America is illustrated by the story of Harry Emerson Fosdick. He was an active promoter of theistic evolution in New York City and after preaching a sermon against the doctrine of special creation taught in the Book of Genesis he was asked to leave his church.

     John D. Rockefeller, Jr., build a new church for Fosdick so he could continue preaching theistic evolution. For twenty years, he promoted Darwinism in a weekly radio sermon.

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Chapter 22 —Intellectuals Embrace Darwinism

Soon after the publication of the Origin of Species, scholars around the world quickly embraced the new theory of evolution. They now had a philosophy (cleverly dressed in scientific clothes) which justified their personal desire to remove God and all His restrictions (commandments, ordinances, teachings, laws, covenants) from their lives. The secularization of the intellectual community was underway.

     The new intellectual of the 1860s could now safely remove God and the Holy Bible from his life and justify it upon so-called scientific reasons. The School of Higher Criticism has been publishing dozens and dozens of cleverly books which attacked different parts of the Holy Bible and its teachings.

Karl Marx Embraces the Teachings of Darwin

     While Thomas Huxley was promoting the teachings of Darwin in public lectures, he may have noticed a heavily bearded man listening attentively. His name was Karl Marx. He has been born into a Jewish family and converted to Christianity. However, as he grew older he began studying the philosophies being promoted by the School of Higher Criticism in Germany and France and he became an atheist. He had been expelled from Germany for his political views and taken up residence in London.

     As Marx listened to Huxley's addresses, he came to believe that the survival of the fittest argument applied to the class struggles of man within the economic systems of England and Europe. Marx had written the Communist Manifesto in 1848. He published Das Kapital in 1867. In 1873 Marx sent Charles Darwin a copy of Das Kapital and asked him if he would give him permission to dedicate his next volume to Darwin.

     Charles Darwin wrote to Karl Marx and declined the offer stating that, "it would pain certain members of his family if he were associated with so atheistic a book." (Arthur Keith, Darwin Revalued. London; Watts and Co., 1955, p. 234.)

     The philosophies contained in the Origin of Species and Descent of Man would be used by Marx and others in the future to justify the horrors of communism, fascism and Nazism.

     Karl Marx had embraced the tenets of Darwinism and atheism. Later Hitler would use the philosophies of Darwinism and Nietzschism to destroy the Jewish people. The consequences for the world would be catastrophic as over 180 million men, women and children would suffer and die because of these philosophies in the 20'h century.

Julius Willhausen Attacks the Old Testament

     Another prominent German scholar that embraced the teachings of Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin was Julius Willhausen (1844-1918). He was a theologian who was a scholar of the Old Testament. As a student he had accepted the teachings of Hegel, therefore, it was an easy step for him to accept Lyell and Darwin. Hegel has taught that man was a descendant of primitive beings.

     Since the views of Hegel, Lyell and Darwin contradicted the views of the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy, Willhausen decided to begin a careful examination of the Books of Moses. These five books outlined the Creation, the Fall of Adam, the Universal Flood and the division of the continents in the Days of Peleg and the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel, etc.

The School of Higher Criticism Develops

a Set of Pseudo — Analytical Tools to Examine the Old Testament

     The School of Higher Criticism had been established in part to undertake so-called scholarly analysis of the Holy Bible. The real reason for its existence was to destroy faith in God and the Holy Bible. Wellhausen was a key member of the School as were his predecessors. The principles of higher criticism would be veiled or concealed under the disguise of academic studies.

     Wellhausen argued that the teachings of the Holy Bible were merely religious practices that had been absorbed from surrounding cultures down through time. He argued that the gospel of Jesus Christ has not been present with Noah and his family when they left the ark and that they were mere inventions by Moses. He even argued that Moses was a mythical character.

The Graf-Wellhausen Developmental or Documentary Hypothesis

     The clever scholars in the School of Higher Criticism assumed that because the Israelites has neglected certain Mosiac laws and regulations for four centuries, that Moses could not have introduced them to the people of Israel. Wellhausen and his group of psuedo-intellectuals in Germany developed a technique for studying the authorship of the books of the Old Testament. It was known as the Graf-Wellhausen Developmental or Documentary Hypothesis. The hypothesis was based on the philosophy of Hegel. A myriad of Ph.D. dissertations have followed this hypothesis which is designed to undermine and destroy faith in God and His prophets.

Scholars Twist and Distort Archaeological Discoveries

     The scholars of the School of Higher Criticism have developed a set of analytical tools for examining the Holy Scriptures or Hebrew Scriptures as they call them, and they have twisted and distorted every archaeological discovery which demonstrates the validity and authenticity of the Holy Bible into evidence for their atheistic views.

A Key Argument of the School of Higher Criticism

     One of the key arguments of the School of Higher Criticism is that the Hebrew Scriptures or the Old Testament is just a collection of fables, legends, myths and fantasies handed down from generation to generation by people if the Middle East.

The Gospel of Jesus Christ Has Been on the Earth since the Beginning

     The truth is that the gospel of Jesus Christ has been on the earth since Adam and Eve walked out of the Garden of Eden and began teaching their children the principles of salvation. The gospel of Jesus Christ, with all of its commandments, laws, ordinances, teachings and covenants, was upon the earth from the days of Adam till Noah and the great Flood.

Noah Teaches His Posterity the Gospel of Jesus Christ

     After the Flood, Noah taught his children the gospel of Jesus Christ and they handed it down from generation to generation. The ancient records, whether they be clay tablets, dried parchments, stone engraving, etc., all contain references to the gospel and its teachings. This has confused some scholars who believe that the gospel originated at the time of the Savior's ministry. This is not true. The gospel was presented to Adam and Eve and they presented it to their children. The pre-flood records, such as the Book of Adam and Eve and the Book of Enoch reference these facts. It is very important to remember that the Jehovah of the Old Testament is really Jesus Christ.

A Deliberate Attempt to Deceive People With False Assumptions

     Once again the atheistic and agnostic scholars at the School of higher Criticism are merely trying to deceive and seduce the intellectual world into accepting their version of early life on this planet. All of their work is designed to destroy a faith in God and the teachings of the holy Bible.

     The scholars of the School of Higher Criticism gradually gained control of the colleges and universities in Europe in the late 1800s. Soon the atheistic philosophies were found in America as young scholars studied in Germany, France and England and then brought their professor's books and ideas back to colleges and universities such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Colombia, etc. Soon these philosophies were spread around America as young graduate students attended these schools and took the atheistic ideas and philosophies back to their schools and began teaching them to their students.

Secularization of Colleges and Universities throughout the World

     Only those instructors and professors that adhered to the tenets of atheism and Darwinism were given key positions and tenure. Those professors and instructors who believed in God were persecuted and ridiculed and given lower positions until they retired. Those who filled their positions were trained in the philosophies of atheism.

     Through this process, the entire educational system of the world was secularized and brought under the control and domination of the School of Higher Criticism. This process was so gradual that most people were unaware that a long-range plan for secularizing the world was being carefully orchestrated without their knowledge.

     As one generation of scholars passed away a new generation arose who were trained in the same tenets of atheism and agnosticism. This process has been going on throughout the world for nearly 300 years.

Encyclopedia Britannica Promotes Darwinism

     One of the most effective proponents of School of Higher Criticism was William Robertson Smith (18791969). He was chief editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Smith was a theologian, philologist, archaeologist, physicist and scholar. He would spend over twenty years of his life teaching theistic evolution.

     In the ninth edition Smith outlined the position of Wellhausen and the psuedo-scholars of the School of Higher Criticism. The public was outraged, however, their cries fell on deaf ears as one of the leading publications in the world began to promote atheism and Darwinism under the guise of theistic evolution.

     Soon other publications would follow as powerful forces gained control of the publishing houses and companies around the world. They would begin promoting the basic tenets of the theory of evolution and the basic teachings of theistic evolution to the public.

School of Higher Criticism Targets Libraries for Takeover

     One of the key targets of the School of Higher Criticism has been the libraries at colleges and universities around the world. The goal was to maneuver scholars into the libraries where they could control the purchase of books, magazines and journals. Librarians, armed with the tenets of agnosticism and atheism, were in a strategic position to influence the minds of the faculty, staff and students. Through the purchase of certain books the librarians could mold the minds of the next generations of scholars and members of society. through the exclusion of certain books, the librarians could prevent certain knowledge from reaching the faculty, staff and students at the college or university. This same process has also been used to control the content of such pubic libraries throughout America, England and Europe.

James Frazer

     Let us look at the story of James Frazer who spend more than sixty years at Cambridge University promoting the theory of evolution. In 1918 he published a three volume work entitled, Folklore in the Old Testament. It is a collection of 138 stories from throughout the world that discuss the Universal Flood. The book was compiled by Frazer to undermine the teachings of the Holy Bible on the Flood. He argued that the Flood was only a local event and not a universal phenomena. Ironically, Frazer gathered the stories from all over the world. And they all refer to the Flood. If the Flood was just a local event, the story would not have been preserved in various traditions that have been handed down through the ages.

     Frazer would spend over sixty years in the libraries of Trinity College at Cambridge undermining faith in Holy Bible.

     There have been tens of thousand of people like Frazer who have been, knowingly or unknowingly, agents of the School of Higher Criticism. The libraries of America, England, Europe and other parts of the world are filled with scholarly books designed and promoted by the scholars of the School of Higher Criticism.

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Chapter 23 — Secularism Takes Over Education in America

One of the main goals of The School of Higher Criticism is to gain control of schools, colleges and universities (including schools of divinity) in order to teach the theory of evolution and its myriad of related premises, assumptions and dogma in the sciences and social sciences. (Remember that the School of Higher Criticism has also targeted the libraries of the nation.)

     Once they gain control of the educational process they immediately begin writing new textbooks that remove all vestiges of Christianity as contained in the Holy Bible. They relegate God and the teachings of the Holy Bible to the categories of myths, legends, mysticism, fables and fairy tales. Once God and the Holy Scriptures are removed as the basis of the educational process, the teachers, instructors and professors who uphold and promote the principles of secularism, agnosticism and atheism are free to indoctrinate young minds in the philosophies of men.

A War is Being Waged in the Classrooms of America

     In February of 1983, John J. Dunphy outlined the strategy that the promoters of Darwinism were to use in America. He said, "I am convinced that the battle for humankind's future must be waged and won in the public school classrooms by teachers who correctly perceive their role as the proselytizers of a new faith: a religion of humanity [Secularism and Darwinism] that recognizes and respects the spark of what theologians call divinity in every human being.

     "These teachers must embody the same selfless dedication as the most rabid fundamentalist preachers, for they will be ministers of another sort, utilizing a classroom instead of a pulpit t convey humanist values in whatever subject they teach, regardless of the educational level—preschool day care or large universities. "(John J. Dunphy, "A New Religion for a New Age," Humanist, January/February, 1983, p. 26.)

Early Christian Textbooks Dominate Schools

     From 1620 unto 1920 the textbooks used in America's school were based upon the Holy Bible. Slowly, the agents of the School of Higher Criticism gained control of the major colleges and universities and the trickle down process began.     Soon the nation was flooded with magazines, journals, monographs and books ridiculing the Christian religion and the Holy Bible. New textbooks appeared which attacked the foundation of America's Christian heritage, the founding fathers, the founding documents, such as the Declaration of Independence and the natural rights or unalienable rights of man.

Changes in American Form of Government

     In 1791 the founding fathers established the United State of America as a Republic. In 1916 the government was changed to a Democracy. In the 1936 the government was changed again to a Welfare State. The efforts of people like John Dewey, Charles Beard and a host of others had succeeded in transforming America from a Christian nation into a secular nation.

Roosevelt Stages a Coup

     In 1936 Franklin Roosevelt staged an elective coup d'etat and gained control of the federal government. Soon the large foundations such as Ford, Rockefeller and Carnegie were working with the Department of Education, the educational unions and the textbook publishing companies in America to produce a new curriculum for America's public schools. All of the textbooks would be socialized and secularized as planned by John Dewey and other key members of the School of Higher Criticism in America.

     The change was so slow that many people did not realize that a revolution was underway until it was over. Now we are dealing with the fallout of a society that has been secularized for nearly 80 years. The problems are now staggering.

McGuffy Readers

     From 1836 to 1920 over 122 million copies of McGuffy Readers were sold in America. Today the Readers are only used in home schools and private school. The original Readers were based upon the Holy Bible.

The youth of the nation are being brainwashed and indoctrinated in philosophies which are exactly opposite the teachings of most homes in America. Fortunately, approximately 13% of the youth in America are enrolled in private schools where the basic teachings of the Holy Bible are upheld and promoted.

An Indictment of the American Educational System

     In 1993 Thomas Sowell, a true scholar and a fellow at the Hoover Institution, published a scathing indictment of the American Educational system. He did not pull any punches. This book should be required reading for every parent in America.

     Sowell said that, "Despite the lofty rhetoric which is as much a part of the educational world as the cap and gown, we must face up to what educators have actually done, as distinguished from what they have said.     "They have taken our money, betrayed our trust, failed our children, and then lied about the failures with inflated grades and pretty words.

     "They have used our children as guinea pigs for experiments, targets for propaganda, and warm bodies to be moved here and there to mix and match for racial balance, pad enrollments in foreign-language programs mislabeled `bilingual,' or just to be warehoused until labor unions are willing to let them enter the job market.

     "They have proclaimed their special concern for minority students, whi8le placing those students into those colleges where they are most like to fail.

     "They have proclaimed their dedication to freedom of ideas and the quest for truth, while turning educational institutions into bastions of dogma and the most intolerant institutions in American society.

     "They have presumed to be the conscience of society and to teach ethics to others, while shamelessly exploiting college athletes, overcharging the government, organizing price-fixing cartels, and leaving the teaching of undergraduates to graduate student assistants and junior and part-time faculty, while the tenured faculty pursue research and its rewards." (Thomas Sowell, Inside American Education: the Decline, the Deception, the Dogmas. New York: The Free Press, 1993, pp. 296-297.)

American System of Education is Bankrupt

     The schools, colleges and universities in America are failing the American people miserably. Sowell said, "The brutal reality is that the American system of education is bankrupt." (Sowell, p. 285.)

     In a chapter entitled, "Assorted Dogmas," Sowell stated, "Despite frequent, chameleon-like changes in the meanings of multiculturalism, its basic components are three: (1) a set of ideological beliefs about society and the world; (2) a political agenda to make these beliefs the basis for the curriculum of the whole educational system, and (3) a set of beliefs about the most effective way to conduct an educational system. (Sowell, p. 71.)

Secularism Has Become a New Religion in America

     Of course, we have been discussing the "ideological beliefs about society" that the School of Higher Criticism is promoting, not only in America, but in every nation on earth. And that is agnosticism and atheism. It is important to note that all religions are based upon a set of beliefs. Agnosticism and atheism are belief systems and constitute a religion just as much as does the Catholic faith, or the Protestant faiths. Secularism is a term that is used to describe these two belief systems— agnosticism and atheism.

     And secularism is based squarely on the teachings of Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin and the resident scholars of the School of Higher Criticism who have been indoctrinating the world with false theories, hypothesis, premises, assumptions, doctrines, teachings and principles for nearly 300 years.

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Chapter 24 — Secularism Takes Over the Government and the Courts

In seems that a crisis brings forth great leaders. New heroes and heroines are bound to arise to been the challenge of battling the forces of secularism in America and around the world. And the School of Higher Criticism understands that the pen is mightier than the sword. That is shy they have expended so much time, talent and treasure to locate and promote scholars who will uphold and promote the principles of agnosticism and atheism.

School of Higher Criticism Gains Control of U. S. Government

     The American educational system has been captured by these forces. It is a simple statement of fact. However, there are many areas where the battle is raging. Let us look at another area which has been targeted for penetration and control by the School of Higher Criticism—the Federal Government and the Federal Court System.

     When the founding fathers created the U. S. Constitution in 1787, they delegated specific powers to the federal government. All other powers were to reside in the states or with the people. They created a limited government with carefully defined powers. From 1791 until 1913, the federal government operated on funds secured by tariffs and excise taxes. There was no persona income tax and there was no taxes on companies and corporations. However, that changed with the Sixteenth Amendment, the adoption of the Federal Reserve Act and a host of other unconstitutional changes. From 1913 the federal government grew from a limited government to an unlimited government. The U. S. Constitutional for all practical purposes has been set aside.

How Did It Happen?

     How did this happen? Well there are four parties to blame. First, the president sought for and was given additional powers not specified in the Constitution. Second, the members of Congress abdicated their role to check and balance the other branches of government and passed laws which allowed the government to grow completely beyond the government outlined in the Constitution. Third, the Federal Courts began usurping the power of the executive and legislative branches by legislating from the bench. The courts began practicing judicial law-making. All three branches overstepped the boundaries defined by the founding fathers in the U. S. Constitution. All three branches, made up of elected and appointed servants of the people violated the oath to protect and defend the constitution by obeying its provisions. Each branch of government failed to balance and check each other. Fourth, the American people fell asleep and forgot to keep a careful eye on their elected and appointed servants. While they slept, the entire governmental system of America was changed from a Republic to a Democracy to a Welfare State. The final stage is underway now to transform the Federal Government from a Welfare State to an Empire.

Secularists Are Using the Government and Courts

To Change America from a Christian Nation to a Secular Nation

     Once the Federal Government was captured by the agents of the Higher School of Criticism in the 1920 and 1930s, they began increasing the size and scope of government. The Federal Government would set up new department, new commissions, new agencies, and new regulatory agencies. The Federal Government then began issuing new laws, new regulations, new edicts to govern every aspect of the American society. Each new president would expand the executive branch, no matter whether he was a republican or a democrat. Congress would fund the expansion of the Federal Government as if Uncle Sam had an unlimited bank account. The courts would sanction laws passed by the Federal Government and when they deemed necessary they would create new laws themselves and mandate their enforcement. The Federal Government is out of control.

     The court system is a perfect place to make changes in society. You elect the right president and he makes the right appointments to the Federal Courts. People forget that these appointments are for life or during terms of good behaviors. If the latter terms were enforced the Federal Courts would be empty.

Judges Have Been Making New Laws for Decades

     If you cannot get a particular law passed by 535 members of Congress, it is a very convenient process to go around Congress and find a judge or set of judges who will legislate for you. And that is exactly what has happened in the Federal Courts for the last 74 years.

     Robert H. Bork, former Circuit Judge on the U. S. Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia and former professor of public law at Yale Law School has written, "In law, the moment of temptation is the moment of choice, when a judge realizes that in the case before him his strongly held view of justice, his political and moral imperative, is not embodies in a statute or in any provision of the Constitution. He must then choose between his version of justice and abiding by the American form of government.

     "Yet the desire to do justice, who nature seems to him obvious, is compelling, while the concept of constitutional process of abstract, rather arid, and the abstinence it counsels unsatisfying. To give in to temptation, this one time, solves an urgent human problem, and a faint crack appears in the American foundation. A judge has begun to rule where a legislator should....

The Democratic Integrity of Law

     "The democratic integrity of law, however, depends entirely upon the degree to which its processes are legitimate. A judge who announces a decision must be able to demonstrate that he began from recognized legal principles and reasoned in an intellectually coherent and politically neutral way to his result. Those who would politicize the law offer the public, and the judiciary, the temptation of results without regard to democratic legitimacy.

     "This strategy, however, contains the seeds of its own destruction. Since the politicization of the law has, for half a century, moved results steadily to the left, a very large number of Americans do not like those outcomes. Increasingly, they are not deceived by the claim that those results are compelled by the actual Constitution. This perception delegitimizes the law in their eyes.     There are signs that law may be at a tipping stage in the public perception of its legitimacy. American increasingly view the courts, and particularly the Supreme Court, as political rather than legal institutions....

A War for Control of America's Legal Culture

     "The clash over my nomination was simply one battle in this long-running war for control of our legal culture. There may be legitimate differences about the nomination, but in the larger war for control of the law, there are only two sides. Either the Constitution and statutes are law, which means that their principles are known and control judges, or they are malleable texts that judges may rewrite to see that particular groups or political causes win. Until recently, the American people were largely unaware of the struggle for dominance in law, because it was wages, in explicit form, only in the law schools. Now it is coming into the open.

Secularists Seek to Control the Constitution and the Courts

     "In the clash of law and politics, the integrity of the law has already has already been seriously undermined and the quality of its future remains very much in doubt. The forces that would break law to a tame instrument of a particular political thrust are past midway in a long march through our institutions. They have overrun a number of law schools, including a large majority of America's most prestigious, where the lawyers and judges of the future are being trained. They have an increasing voice in our politics and in Congress. But the focus of the struggle, the commanding height sought to be taken, as indeed it partially has been, is control of the courts and the Constitution. The Constitution, or the law we call 'constitutional'—are by no means identical—is the highest prize, and control of the selection of judges is the last step on the path to that prize. Why? Because the Constitution is the trump card in American politics, and judges decide what the Constitution means. When the Supreme Court invokes the Constitution, whether legitimately or not, as to that issue, the democratic process is at an end....

Judges Are Bound By Law

     "The American design of a constitutional Republic is such a ‘complete and self-supporting scheme.’ The heresy that dislocates it is the introduction of the denial that judges are bound by law.

Separation of Powers

     "The foundation of American freedoms is in the structure of our Republic. The major features of that structure are the separation of the powers of the national government and the limitation of national power, to preserve a large degree of autonomy in the states. Both are maintained by the Constitution.

     "These dispersions of power, viewed historically, have guaranteed our liberties, as much as, perhaps more than, the Bill of Rights itself. The phrase ‘separation of powers,’ briefly put, means that Congress has all legislative Powers,' as those are defined in article I of the Constitution, while the President possesses ‘The executive Power,' which is outlined in articles II, and article III sets forth the elements of ‘The Judicial Power.' Those powers are every different in nature, as those who adopted the Constitution recognized and intended. When powers are shared, as they sometimes are by the President and Congress, the Constitution is usually explicit on the subject. Thus, the Constitution specifies that the President may veto a bill enacted by a two-thirds vote of each House.

     "Similarly, the President may negotiate treaties, but they must be ratified by a two-thirds vote of the Senate. There is no faintest hint in the Constitution, however, that the judiciary shares any of the legislative or executive power. The intended function of the federal courts is to apply the law as it comes to them from the hands of others. The judiciary's great office is to preserve the constitutional design. It does this not only by confining Congress and the president to the powers granted them by the Constitution and seeing that the powers granted are not used to invade the freedoms guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, but also, and equally important, by ensuring that the democratic authority of the people is maintained in the full scope given by the Constitution.

Federal Judges Are Supposed to be Independent

     "The Constitution preserves our liberties by providing that all of those given authority to make policy are directly accountable to the people through regular elections. Federal judges, alone among our public officials, are given life tenure precisely so that they will not be accountable to the people. If it were otherwise, if judges were accountable, the people could, when the mood seized the, alter the separation of powers, do away with representative government, or deny basic freedoms to those out of popular favor.

Judges Must Consider Themselves Bound by the Law

     "But if judges are, as they must be to perform their vital role, unelected, unaccountable, and unrepresentative, who is to protect us from the power of judges? How are we to be guarded from our guardians? The answer can only be that judges must consider themselves bound by law that is independent of their own views of the desirable. They must not make or apply any policy not fairly to be found in the Constitution or a statute. It is of course true that judges to some extend must make every law every time they decide a case, but it is minor, interstitial lawmaking. The ratifiers of the Constitution put in place the walls, roofs, and beams; judges preserve the major architectural features.

Judges Are Bound By Original Meaning of the Constitution or Statute

     "What does it mean to say that a judge is bound by law? It means that he is bound by the only thing that can be called law, the principles of the text, whether Constitution or statute, as generally understood at the enactment.... "That is the American Orthodoxy. The heresy, which dislocates the constitutional system, is that the ratifiers' original understanding of what the Constitution means is no longer of controlling, or perhaps of any, importance.... The result is a belief, widely held and propagated in the law schools and even by some justices of the Supreme Court, that judges may create new principles or destroy old ones, thus altering the principles actually to be found in the Constitution. Courts then not only share the legislative power of Congress and the state legislatures, in violation both of the separation of powers and of federalism, but assume legislative power that is actually superior to that of any legislature.....

Secularists Seek Judges Who Will Alter the Constitution By Interpretation

     “The orthodoxy of original understanding, and the political neutrality of judging it requires, are anathema to a liberal culture that for fifty years has won a succession of political victories from the courts and that hopes for more political victories in the future. The representatives of that culture hate the American orthodoxy because they have moral and political agendas of their own that cannot be found in the Constitution and that no legislative, or at least none whose members wish to be reelected, will enact. That is why these partisans want judges who will their victories for them by altering the Constitution." (Robert H. Bork, The Tempting of America: the Political Seduction of the Law. New York: The Free Press, 1990, pp. 1-3, 4-5, 6-7.)

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Chapter 25 — Secularism Takes Over the Media

Moral and Cultural Relativism

     One of the main principles of the theory of evolution is that man is an evolutionary being who evolved from a single cell organism over eons of time in a natural, slow process. The underling premises of this theory is that there no God. And if there is no God, there are no moral absolutes. If there is no God, there is no right and wrong. If there is no God, there is no Ten Commandments or any commandments for that matter. If there is no God, there is no Holy Bible, no prophets, no apostles, no creation, fall, atonement, resurrection or eternal life. If there is no God, there is no soul or spirit or divinity in man. Of course, those who promote Darwinism do not want you to realize that they are promoting pure, unadulterated atheism. Therefore they camouflage their teachings or their beliefs within science.

The Theory of Evolution is a Philosophy Masquerading as a Science

     The leaders and members of the School of Higher Criticism know that the theory of organic evolution is a philosophy masquerading as a science. However, they do not want you to know that. There is absolutely nothing scientific about Darwinism, it is pure philosophy and they have placed Darwinism inside the fortress of science to protect it from scrutiny and attack. It is important to remember that true science is based upon observation, experimentation and verification. All the these components are missing from the Origin of Species.

     Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin were not present when the earth was created. They were not present when the great Creator placed all forms of life on the earth and commanded them to multiple, each after its kind. And they were not present when the Creator placed Adam and Eve here on earth in the midst of a beautiful garden. The theory of uniformity and the theory of evolution is just a man-made theory. Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin created their theories to destroy faith in God and the Holy Bible and its remarkable teachings. Their theories were purposely designed to destroy the mission of the Lord Jesus Christ.

     Darwin and Lyell were leading members of the School of Higher Criticism. They knew exactly what they were doing and the consequences of their actions.

Sigmund Freud Destroys Reality of God, Sin and Repentance

     Sigmund Freud, a follower of Darwinism, developed a set of theories that also destroyed faith in God, the Holy Bible and its teachings. Freud would also deny the existence of God and said that those who believed in Christianity were neurotic. One of Freud's missions in life was to remove the guilt people feel when they have done something wrong or committed a sin. God has given a conscious to each person born on earth. They instinctively know good and evil. He taught that since there is no God, there is no sin; therefore, people should no feel guilty when they do something they thing is wrong, sinful or evil. He thought the commandments of God were fairy tales.

     He believed that men and women are mere creatures, animals which descended from monkeys. His writings are full of intellectual self-justification, however, they are just clever rhetorical devices wrapped in scientific language to give an aura of credibility and allow a person to ignore their conscious and engage in behavior which may be completely destructive. . The truth is very simple—all of his theories were derived from false premises.

Darwin and Freud Prepare the Way

for the Introduction of Moral and Cultural Relativism

     Darwin and Freud paved the way for the introduction of immodestly, unchastity, immorality as a normal part of the natural man and woman. They felt that each person should be free to choose whatever behavior made him or her feel good. Moral relativism is no morals at all.

     The School of Higher Criticism has spent the last 80 years actively promoting the tenets of agnosticism and atheism in America. They have succeeded in secularizing American society. The have led the nation into moral bondage. Generations of young students have been raised on a steady diet of cultural relativism and moral relativism. There is now no morals, no standards, no limits, no guidelines, no values, no commandments, no nothing. They have enslaved the American people with the tenets of Darwinism, agnosticism and atheism. And they have been so successful that people are now deep in bondage and they believe they are free. Orwell was right. Freedom is slavery.

Moral and Cultural Relativism Transform Society in America

     From 1620 unto 1920 the Holy Bible served as the moral compass which guided the American people in their daily lives. Our entire legal system is based upon the English System of Common Law. And this remarkable system of law is based entirely upon the Holy Scriptures. The teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ and his prophets and apostles served as the foundation for moral and cultural behavior in America. However, in the 1920s the teachings of the Holy Bible were replaced by the teachings of Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud. As their views began to be accepted in the academia and the media, the American people were quickly seduced and they began accepting and adopting the principles of secularism, without knowing its hidden agenda.

Truth is Relative

     Alan Bloom, the famous professor at the University of Chicago, wrote, "There is one thing a professor can be absolutely certain of almost every student entering the university believes, or say he believes, that truth is relative." (Alan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987, p. 25.) If truth is relative, then there are no moral or cultural absolutes, which is exactly what the School of Higher Criticism wants the people throughout America and the world to believe. There is not God, therefore, there is not right and wrong, no good and evil, no light and darkness, no freedom and tyranny. There is no truth. Hence Pontius Pilate famous question still rings throughout the world today, "What is truth?" According to Darwin and Freud, there is no truth. It is all relative. Such a belief system is a perfect way to enslave the American people and place them into a prison for their minds, which is exactly what has happened for the last 80 years or more.

The Adoption of New Absolutes in Society

     The principles of secularism have become the new absolutes that are leading the nation into moral bondage and eventual collapse. According to William D. Watkins, moral relativism is systematically weakening the nation by teaching that, "What's true for you may not be true for me. One person's art is another person's pornography. No culture is better or worse that another. There are no objective morals, just differing opinions. Just go with the flow. If it feels good, do. Anything goes. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."

     "Each of these statements reflects a relativist view of reality. `What's true for you may not be true for me' makes truth 'person-dependent.' What you and I believe may differ, may even be contradictory. For instance, I might believe that human beings can live beyond the grave, whereas you might believe that the grave is a dead end. That does not matter. You can believe whatever you want, just as I can. What matters is that you respect my truth and I respect yours.

     "Or take the statement `One person's art is another person's pornography.' On one level, this is a statement of fact. It is true that people have conflicting views over photographs and paintings that depict individuals in sexually explicit poses or activities. However, this statement goes beyond this simple factual observation and makes an assertion about our ability to decide what is art and what is pornography. In effect it claims that we have no objective criteria by which we can make such a determination. People have honest differences of opinion, including informed art critics. These various interpretations, says the relativist, show that what constitutes art is subjective. How can we come up with objective standards for good art or bad art if we can't even say objectively what art is? It is best, therefore, to give free rein to artistic expression in the public arena and leave pejorative labels, such as pornography, at home. Besides, who can really say what is pornographic anyway?

Of course, people, including art critics, make decisions about works of art all the time. Sometimes these decisions impact an artist's reputation or pocketbook. At times they even lead to important cultural clashes over issues such as freedom of speech and community standards....

According to Relativists There Are No Absolutes

     "According to the relativist, we cannot adjudicate between these conflicting interpretations because there are no absolute standards by which to judge. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder, and there are as many `standards' of beauty as there are beholders. What you may find beautiful, I may see as offensive, and someone else may find boring or simply not worth bothering about. Why, then, should my view or yours be accepted as the standard? Better not to pass judgment at all, at least not a judgment that would keep other people from encountering the `art' and coming to their own conclusions.

     "Let's take one more of these claims: ‘No culture is better or worse than another.’ This is an expression of cultural relativism. Its focus shifts away from the individual and zeros in on the society in which the individual

belongs and lives. It grows out of the conviction that there are no universal standards of good or bad, right or wrong, normal or abnormal, that we can apply cross-culturally. In fact, cultural relativists maintain that a society's beliefs and behaviors must be understood and judged within the context of that society. Whatever a society believes is right is right within that society; whatever beliefs and behaviors it condemns as wrong are, therefore, wrong for that group. We, from our culture, cannot impose our standards on any other culture, just as other cultures cannot judge us by their standards. No culture's code of conduct has special status; it is simply one code among many, no better or worse than any other.

The American People are Locked in a Mental Construct of the World

     "In short, relativism is the belief that truth and error, right and wrong, beautiful and ugly, normal and abnormal, and a host of other judgments are determined by the individual, her circumstances, or her culture. Reality and morality are personal or social constructions or both. What we say we believe about the `real world' says more about us and our group than it does about something beyond us or our culture. Psychology and sociology have replaced philosophy, science, and theology. There is no transcendent God or universal natural law we can point to that can inform us about who we are, what our world is like, and how we should get along in it. We do not even have a neutral, objective referent point on which we can stand so we can get beyond our particular situations and discover universal truths. We are forever locked up in our mental constructions and emotional ebbs and flows...." (William D. Watkins, The New Absolutes: How They Are Imposed Upon Us—How they Are Eroding Our Moral Landscape. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1996, pp.21-23.)

     The cultural war that is raging in America is also raging across the entire planet as the forces of secularism have conquered the planet and set up the most complete ideological tyranny that has ever oppressed mankind. In this cultural war, the targets for conquest were: the family, education, media, arts, law, politics, business, finance.

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Chapter 26 — Secularism Takes Over the Foundations in America

For decades prominent families have sought ways to transfer large estates to their heirs without having to pay enormous inheritance taxes. In the early 1900s astute lawyers and accountants on Wall Street conceived the idea of setting up large foundations and making them tax exempt. They went to work and persuaded members of Congress to pass legislation that allowed these corporate entities to be free of taxation. Since the Sixteenth Amendment was not adopted until the 1916, it has always been interesting to me that the Wall Street lawyers were able to anticipate such an event unless they had inside information which stated that the amendment was going to be proposed and passed. Of course on Wall Street, insider information is older than the market itself.

The wealthy families on the East Coast did set up very large foundations, such as the Ford Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Carnegie Foundation, Mellon Foundation, etc., to protect the wealth that they had accumulated throughout the decades.

An Analysis of the Grants Made By the Large foundations

Reveals a Clear Pattern of Promoting the Tenets of Secularism

     It was not long before these giant foundations began make gifts to colleges, universities, hospitals, private schools, research groups and scholars. The worldview of those who were in charge of making gifts tells you where those gifts were going to be distributed. And that is where the story gets interesting. If you analyze the recipients of the gifts you learn why those gifts were made in the first place. If you analyze the gifts and the recipients over a long period of time, you find that a clear pattern emerges. It is impossible to conceal the gifts because they are a matter of public record.

     The largest foundations in America have been dominated and controlled, since their inception, by the secular worldview. It appears that the School of Higher Criticism had gained a very important ally in the early 1900s in America. The giant foundations have financed the writing of new textbooks in the sciences and social sciences since their formation. John Dewey and his friends also had a friend at the bank so to speak.

     Let us look at the origin of these huge foundations and the effect of their grants, which total in the hundreds of millions of dollars, on American education and policy in America.

An Ideological Revolution Takes Place in America

     Between 1933 and 1953 a change took place in the United States which was so drastic it could be accurately described as a "revolution." It was during these critical years that the nation's worst depression occurred and the American people became involved in a catastrophic world war. Shortly afterwards they found themselves in a no win "undeclared war" in Korea. As crisis piled upon crisis significant changes took place in the structure of American life. One of the more obvious changes was the rapid shifting of ultimate responsibility for the economic welfare of the people from the private sector to the Executive Branch of the Federal Government.

     Rather amazingly, this revolutionary transfer of power was achieved without violence and in a propaganda climate which led the majority of the American people to give it their full consent.

     By the early 1950's, however, there were many people both in and out of government who felt that something was seriously wrong. It was charged that the resources of America's vast educational system had been misappropriated to teach concepts which were destructive to the entire fabric of the American constitutional system. It was also felt the schools were being utilized to promote the acceptance of economic ideas which are diametrically opposed to the open society of the American free enterprise system.

The Foundations Have Played a Key Role in Secularizing America

     The question automatically arose, "Who is responsible for all of this?" A preliminary inquiry indicated that the main thrust was coming from several private foundations which had spent hundreds of millions of dollars in tax exempt funds to promote textbooks and teachings which were "socialistic" in domestic affairs and "one-world" in foreign affairs. The three principal offenders were said to be the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation.

     So much public indignation had been generated by 1952 that the 82nd Congress passed House Resolution 561 to set up a special "Select Committee to Investigate Foundations and Comparable Organizations." Many considered this to be one of the most important investigations in the nation's history. The Committee was instructed to determine whether or not any of the foundations had been "using their resources for un-American and subversive activities or for purposes not in the interest of the tradition of the United States." (House Report No. 2514, January 1, 1953, p. 2)

The Cox Committee

     This Committee was named after its chairman and became known as the "Cox Committee," but unfortunately it did not accomplish a great deal. The time factor was rather limited and the unexpected death of the chairman resulted in a very superficial inquiry being conducted. Nevertheless, it did establish that there were signs of strong subversive influence on the decision-making level of several leading foundations. However, the impact of this discovery was virtually nullified in the Committee's final report by giving considerable weight to the testimony of the foundation officers who had insisted that the subversive elements on their boards were not of any particular significance.

The Minority Views of Congressman B. Carroll Reece

     Congressman B. Carroll Reece was a member of the Cox Committee and was not at all satisfied with the final report. He added an appendage which urged that "if a more comprehensive study is desired, the inquiry might be continued by the 83`d Congress...." (ibid., 1 p. 14)

     Congressman Reece felt that the hasty and superficial inquiry of the Cox Committee left the nation without the answers it needed. He therefore introduced House Resolution 217, which was passed by a vote of 209 to 183 on July 27, 1953. The resolution provided that:

     "The Committee is authorized and directed to conduct a full and complete investigation ... to determine which of such foundations and organizations are using their resources for un-American and subversive activities; for political purposes; propaganda, or attempts to influence legislation." (House Report No. 2681, December 16, 1954, p. 1)

First Attempt To Block the Investigation

     The members of the new Committee were: B. Carroll Reece of Tennessee, Chairman; Jessie P. Wolcott of Michigan; Angier L. Goodwin of Massachusetts; Wayne L. Hays of Ohio; and Gracie Pfost of Idaho.

     It is important to note that three of these five individuals had voted against the Reece resolution in order to prevent this Committee from coming into existence. This was the first attempt by the powerful influences working behind the foundations to control and block the investigation.

Second Attempt to Block the Investigation

     The resolution directed the new Committee to prepare a report by January 3, 1955. On August 1, 1953, the Committee was granted $50,000 with the agreement that additional funds would be forthcoming after the first of next year. Committee counsel was obtained on September 1, 1953 and the compilation of a staff began on September 15th. However, it was soon apparent that the promised funds would not be forthcoming. The second attempt to block the investigation of the Reece Committee by the foundation world therefore came in the form of starving the Committee by lack of sufficient funds.

Committee Research Directed by Norman Dodd

     Between September 15, 1953 and April 29, 1954 the Reece Committee operated, in essence, under the direction of its Research Director Norman Dodd.

     It is interesting to note that after the Committee was organized the members wanted to study the data collected by the Cox Committee, especially on the subversive aspects of the foundations. For some mysterious reason the entire file dealing with the subversive activities of the foundations had disappeared.

A Preliminary Report by Norman Dodd

     On April 29, 1954, Norman Dodd prepared a preliminary report for presentation to the members of the Reece Committee. This report was exploratory in character and outlined the pattern of inquiry which the research staff would be pursuing.

Third Attempt to Block Investigation

     The effect of Dodd's preliminary report was electrifying. Within a matter of hours, steps were taken by powerful forces to block the rest of the Committee's investigation. The Establishment media deluged the nation with stories that the investigation was futile and should be terminated.

     The smear job on the Committee was the third major tactic utilized by the foundation world to harass and terminate the committee. It soon became obvious why the Reece Committee was considered such a threat. Congressman Reece later described the situation in these words:

     "The evidence that had been gathered by the staff pointed to one simple underlying situation, namely, that the major foundations by subsidizing collectivistic-minded educators, had financed a socialist trend in American Government.

     "We informed the foundations in advance that our findings suggested that the foundations had for a long time been exercising powerful, although sometimes indirect political influence in both domestic and foreign policy, predominantly toward the left—to say nothing of the support by the foundations of the Institute of Pacific Relations which led the movement to turn China over to the Communists and which was admittedly Communist dominated. "The doubts and reservations concerning the validity of the complaints against the large foundations were largely dispelled by the almost hysterical reaction of the foundations to the summary presented to the committee by the committee staff on the opening day of the hearings.

     "The excitement bordered on panic; as was observed by the demonstrations through the public relations channels of the large foundations and this convinced me, and others of the American public, judging from the letters received... that the general picture which had taken shape was not very far from the truth." (Speech before National Press Club Luncheon, February 23, 1955, p. 3)

     After Norman Dodd's Preliminary Report appeared, powerful individuals in America made their move to insure that the Committee would be permanently terminated. It was obvious that the Reece Committee had already gone too far. This Committee was about to officially document for the first time in history that the United States was the victim of a deliberate conspiracy to dismantle the Constitutional rights of the people. This conspiracy is aiming at no less than the creation of centralized supranational institutional mechanisms from which it will rule the world under collective management.

Committee Hearings Brought to A Standstill

     After nineteen days of hearings, powerful political machinery behind the scenes was deployed at the Capitol to stop the Reece Committee completely. The last hearing was held on July 9, 1954.

     The hearings were canceled partly because of the abrasive and uncontrollable actions of Congressman Wayne Hays, who later admitted to Normal Dodd that Major Persons from the White House had been up to see him. "He wanted me to cooperate in dusting up this investigation," Hays stated. (interview with Norman Dodd, November 12-13, 1977)

     Even though the hearings were discontinued, a sufficient quantity of evidence was accumulated by the Committee's staff to clearly demonstrate that the major foundations had been spending hundreds of millions to divest the United States of her traditional system of values and replace them with socialist goals designed to prepare America for provincial status in a global world government. The remainder of this issue will be devoted to examining the evidence gathered by the Reece Committee. It seems to be entirely apparent that these events of the past were a clearly defined prelude to the present.

Committee Reports Reveal the Sinister Goals of the Large Foundations

     Even though powerful forces were able to stop the hearings the committee staff was able to prepare several reports that expose the efforts of the giant foundations to secularize education in America and eliminate the study of American history, government and economics from the high school curriculum. The reports also show how the foundations use their grant making powers and the tremendous financial resources at their disposal to reward individuals and organizations which promote the tenets of secularism in America.

     The giant foundations began altering education in America in the early 1900s. The forces of secularism have now captured control of the entire educational system in America, with the sole exception of private schools and home schools. And they have devised a number of tactics to destroy them. In the future, the government will remove the tax-exempt status of churches and private schools in America. That will force many private schools to close their doors.

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Chapter 27 — A New Secular Religion Arises in America

From the time that the Pilgrims and Puritans landed on the shores of New England in 1620 until 1920, America was a Christian nation. However, in the 1920s the tide began to change as the intellectual climate at the colleges and universities and the schools of divinity began to openly move from a Christian base to agnosticism and atheism. The philosophies of Kant, Rousseau, Hegel, Nietzsche, Lyell, Darwin, Freud, Marx and a host of others were now being taught at Columbia, Harvard, Yale, Princeton and throughout the nation. From the 1880s through the 1920s American students had traveled to Europe to study in England, France and Germany and when they returned to American universities they have already become converted to the philosophies of agnosticism, atheism and secularism.

Alien Philosophies Enters the Colleges of America

     In the 1920s John Dewey and a host of scholars began altering the intellectual texts of American education and hundreds of new textbooks would appear attacking the belief in God, the Holy Bible and its teachings. The social studies curriculum was created to teach more of the alien philosophies imported from Europe. The trickle down principle was in operation as students attended graduate school in the East and then went back West to teach their students the new philosophies.

Secularism is a Religion Just as Catholicism is a Religion

     The School of Higher Criticism had succeeded in creating an intellectual base that has now large enough to sweep the world with their false doctrines, theories, hypothesis, teachings, principles, concepts and philosophies. If you take all of these philosophies and combines them you have the basis of a new religion—the religion of secularism. Secularism is nothing more than a unique combination of agnosticism and atheism. It is important to remember that a religion is nothing more than a belief system. Every religion on earth has a specific body of beliefs. These beliefs constitute a worldview. Secularism is no different. It is a specific body of beliefs. If you do not believe me, go to any college or university graduation and watch as instructors and professors wear the robes of the secular priesthood. This ritual is now being practiced even at the high school level. Secularism is a religion just as much as Catholicism is a religion, or Muslimism is a religion, or Protestantism is a religion, or Buddhism is a religion. Each have a different worldview, but they are all religions. A religion is merely a belief system.

     In Torcaso v. Watkins,(1961) the U. S. Supreme Court expanded the meaning of the term "religion," under the First Amendment, to include "nonreligious beliefs." It declared that secular humanism is a religion just as is Buddhism, Taoism, Ethical Culture, etc. That means that the Supreme Court has now officially recognized the fact that secularism, a combination of agnosticism and atheism, is a belief system and therefore it is classified as a religion.

A Special Belief System or Religion for the Elite of the World

     The School of Higher Criticism has designed a religion for the elite financial, business and social oligarchies of the world. It is called Secularism. It has its creation story—the big bang. It has its miracles—all life originated from a single cell miraculously. It has its prophets—Niccolo Machiavelli, Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin. It has its own apocrypha—The Prince. It has its own old testament— the Principles of Geology. It has its own new testament—The Origin of Species. It has its own business and financial philosophy—Machiavellianism. It has its own high priests—Thomas Huxley, etc. It has its own ethics—hedonism. It has its own rituals—methodologies of the sciences and social sciences. It has its own priesthood—the professors of science and social science. It has its own temples—colleges and universities. It has its own churches—colleges and universities throughout the world. It has its own dogmas—the tenets of secularism—agnosticism and atheism. It has its own heresies—the teachings of the Holy Bible. It has it own Inquisitors—the judges.

School of Higher Criticism Constructs Modern Temples of Learning and Churches

     Instead of a church building or a temple, the School of Higher Criticism has constructed colleges and universities patterned after the Medieval monasteries of Europe to serve as their churches and temples. There is a hierarchy in the Secular Church just as there is in the Catholic Church. The Secular Church has its prophets, apostle, high priests, ministers and priests just as do the Protestant and Catholic Churches. Oxford University and Harvard University are two examples of modern Temples of Learning in the Secular Church.

     If you take the Holy Bible as your guide and standard by which to evaluate and judge all things, it becomes very clear to you which teachers, instructors and professors are teaching the philosophies of the Adversary and which are teaching the gospel of Jesus Christ.

All Knowledge Falls into One Worldview or Another

     All knowledge on earth is categorized into one worldview or another. There is no set of knowledge that is somehow neutral or just floating in space. The members of the School of Higher Criticism would like the inhabitants of the earth to believe that, there are a myriad of bizarre churches and religions in the world (comprised of myths, legends, fantasies, fairy tales, superstitions, mysticism, magic and delusions), who worship Gods they have created in their minds to satisfy all types of needs. However, separate from these delusional churches and religions is the real Camelot—the intellectual world where the philosophies of the world are neatly arranged into academic disciplines. Of course the scholars in Camelot only teach the truth—the so-called truths of Kant, Hegel, Lyell, Darwin, Spencer, Nietzsche, Marx, Freud, etc. These scholars have spoken, Thus saith Nietzsche—"God is Dead." They have constructed a nice little ivory tower to live our their lives in a fantasy world as imaginary as the world of Peter Pan.

Why Should Taxpayers Pay for Professors

to Teach False Doctrines at Colleges and Universities

     I have always found it interesting that the colleges and universities around the world—the Ivory Towers of Camelot (secular churches and temples) are paid for by the taxes of hard working citizens (the delusional and neurotic members of society who attend the various churches of the world who are ridiculed on campuses because they lack the college training or degrees of the instructors and professors.)

Why Should Taxpayers Pay for Professors to Have Tenure

     I have always found the concept of Tenure equally interesting. Very few people in the world have such an arrangement. Why should the hardworking taxpayer of the land have to pay for professors to teach all manner of false doctrines disguised as philosophy or pay for professors to sit under a comfortable tree, eating apples raised and harvested by the hardworking taxpayer, while he or she writes a book, which teaches all manner of false doctrines disguised as philosophy? And why should the hardworking taxpayer have to pay for the salaries, insurance benefits and retirement plans of professors who teach all manner of false doctrines which undermine the basic values and principles of the hard working taxpayer? Why should the hardworking taxpayer have to pay for students to attend a college or university who are not his children?

Academic Tyranny and Slavery

     This is not academic freedom. It is academic tyranny and forced slavery. The taxpayers of various nations are being forced to pay the salaries of those who are destroying society with their poisonous doctrines.

     It may be time for an Intellectual French Revolution where we cut off the salaries and tenures of those who are teaching our teaching our children all manner of false doctrines disguised as philosophy. Why not let the free market reign in education as in business.

The New Religion of Secularism Has a Set of Canonized Beliefs

     The new religion of secularism has a canonized set of beliefs just as the Catholic Church or any other church on earth. The School of Higher Criticism has tried to conceal this from people around the world so they will continue to financially support the colleges and universities which are teaching agnosticism, atheism and secularism under the disguise of philosophy.

School of Higher Criticism Uses Humanism to Convert New Members

     Secularism has a number of high priests and ministers who love to preach the tenets of their religion. One of the most successful techniques of the School of Higher Criticism has been to draw people are agnostic into the philosophy of humanism as a prelude to their full baptism into pure atheism.

     Corliss Lamont, a key member of the School of Higher Criticism and a high priest of secular church, stated that, "since agnostics are doubtful about the supernatural, they tend to be Humanist in practice." (Corliss Lamont, The Philosophy of Humanism. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1977, p. 45.)

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Chapter 28 — A New Secular State Arises in America

Since the early 1900s powerful forces have been at work, like termites burrowing their way into the foundation of America's institutions. One way to make society work for you is to capture the government of a nation and then use the power of that government to achieve whatever ends you choose.

Tyrants Seize Reins of Government to Rule over Others

     A survey of world history for the last 6000 years reveals that tyrants of all sizes, shapes and colors have seized the reins of government and established one form of tyranny after another. After they size power, the tyrants always retain a team of scholars to rewrite history and conceal the lessons of the past. That is why the study of history is so important. There is an old saying, ‘that he who is ignorant of the past is doomed to repeat it.’ The tyrants who seize power know this is true. That is why they do not want true history to be taught in the schools. That is why when John Dewey, Charles Beard and a host of scholars were assembled to alter American history. They simply removed the Christian heritage of America.

Founding Fathers Wisely Divided Power in USA

     The founding fathers of the American Republic wisely divided power between the states and the Federal Government. In the states they divided power between the cities, counties and state government. This principle of government is known as federalism.

     The leaders of the School of Higher Criticism knew that the founding fathers and the institutions they designed had to be destroyed if the American government was ever to be slowly moved from a republic to a democracy to a welfare state to an empire. They would have liked to jump right to empire, however, the division of power between the states and the separation of powers at both the state and federal level, along with the unique set of checks and balances designed by the frames prevented them from accomplishing their plans right away. They had to design a strategy to capture the American government. That strategy became know as piecemeal functionalism.. They would make one change at a time so as not to draw attention to what they were really doing.

Government Officials Are Manipulated By Ideological Means

     Over a period of a century they have accomplished their goals and objectives. They have seduced the people to accept the secular worldview and when they are elected to office they begin implementing the goals of objectives of secularism. The government officials are like independent contractors. They (the School of Higher Criticism) hires you (the government officials—from all levels of government—who have already accepted the secular worldview) and you go to work (implementing the goals and objectives of the secular worldview) for them (the School of Higher Criticism). That is how the process of manipulation and control works.

Control of State Governments and the Federal Government

     The School of Higher Criticism have gained ideological control of state governments and the federal government through elected officials who have accepted the tenets and principles of secularism.

     Once prominent secularists are in positions of power they naturally begin implementing the agenda of secularism. That is how the nation has moved from a Christian nation to a Secular State. There had been an ideological change of the guards. Christianity has been replaced by secularism in the halls of government.

     One of the largest benefits of this new arrangement is that the School of Higher Criticism just gained control of the entire educational system in America. The seized control when John Dewey and his colleagues captured the colleges and universities in American. After seizing the colleges and universities, they captured the individual states and their public systems of education. They now have complete control, except in certain home schools and private schools.

U. S. Department of Education

     Once the School of Higher Criticism gained control of the U. S. Department of Education they began implementing their educational agenda for America. What is that agenda? It is the complete removal of God and the Holy Bible and its teachings from every facet of public life in America.

State Departments of Education

     Once the School of Higher Criticism gained control of Departments of Education at the state level, they began the same process at the state level.

Public Schools are Giant Monopolies in America

     The public educational system in America is comprised of 40 million students in k-12 and 12 million in college students. It is a giant education monopoly in a nation that pretends to uphold the free market system. (There are approximately seven million students in private school and between three and five million in home schools in America.)

National Education Association Has Promoted Secularism since Its Inception

     The School of Higher Criticism seized control of the National Education Association soon after it was established and the NEA has been secularizing the nation as fast as they could. Teachers are so busy and tired after working with students all day, that the overwhelming majority of them, do not even realize that they are inadvertently, agents of the School of Higher Criticism. They are too busy and too tired to develop the curriculums. That is where the NEA and the big textbook publishing companies in Chicago and New York City come in.

Use of Force in Maintain Monopoly

     Without ideological control of the government and the use of force in the form of compulsory attendance, curriculum guidelines, teacher licensing, etc., the Secular State could not have arisen in America.

     Each year over 50 million children and young adults are being taught the principles of secularism. Not all students accept these new ideologies and philosophies. A goodly number come from families who trained them in traditional family values, basic Christian principles, free market economic, republican government and they reject the theories and dogmas that are forced upon them in the public education system in America.

     The secularists gained control of law school and the court systems at the state and federal levels through the same process that we outlined above. They are implementing their agenda in law schools and the courts just as they are in the public schools.

An Ideological Warfare Raging in Schools across the Nation

     There is a very real ideological warfare raging in America between those who believe in the Christian worldview and those who belief in the secular worldview. That war is going to continue to grow in intensity in the future until there is a complete breakdown of law and order, and mobs rules cities, counties and states unless something is done to stop the spread of secularism in America.

Each Public Servant Has a Worldview

     The size and scope of the Federal Government has grown so large that it is out of control. There are so many departments, agencies and commissions at the Federal level that you need a calculator just to tally their number. Each individual that serves in these departments, agencies and commission has a worldview. If that worldview is a secular one, then you have the same process in play as outlined above. The secularization of America is coming from all of these individuals are at the federal level.

     Now go to the state government, and even they have grown too large. The same process is in play. The State governments also have many departments, agencies and commissions, although on a smaller scale. Each person working in these entities has a worldview,. And if that worldview is secular, then the secular agenda gets another boost at the state level.

     If you look at county governments in America, you find a host of department and agencies serving the public. Once again, each person employed has a worldview. And if they operate from a secular worldview, then the secular agenda has another friend.

     If you look at cities in America the same process is in play. Think of the number of employees (each with their own worldview) that are employed in the following cities: New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, Minneapolis, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, New Orleans, Phoenix, St Louis, Denver, Seattle, Portland San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, etc. Now you can begin to understand the process whereby America is being secularized by unwitting agents of the School of Higher Criticism and they are not even on the official payroll.

     If you then combine this process—city, county, state and the federal government— together, you begin to see how a Secular State is being constructed in America.

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Chapter 29 — Secularism Seeks to Replace Christianity in America

     The School of Higher Criticism is determined to remove God and the Holy Scriptures from every city,

county, state and federal agency, department and commission in government. Once the basic tenets of the Christian have been removed all that remains in the private sector. In the private sector we have businesses, companies and corporations. We also have private schools. And we have individual homes and home schools.

The Federal and State governments now employ over 10 million people. If the majority of people working in public government have a secular worldview and are working daily to expand the tenets of that belief system, you can readily see that a powerful force is secularizing the nation. If you add the public schools and the public colleges and universities, then you can see that a very large army is promoting secularism in America.

     The courts have already removed prayer, Bible reading, Christian plays, celebrations, nativity scenes, and copies of the Ten Commandments from the public schools and public buildings in America.

     The public schools have adopted curriculums which only teach and promote the philosophies and tenets of humanism, agnosticism, socialism and atheism in the schools.

     The public colleges and universities only teach and promote the philosophies and tenets of secularism in the sciences and social sciences.

     The media has adopted the tenets of secularism and the principles of cultural and moral relativism now dominate the radio, television and film industry.

     Government agencies, departments and commissions at the city, county, state and federal levels are promoting the agenda of secularism each and every day.

     The publishing houses are printing hundreds of magazines and journals which only promote cultural and moral relativism and the principles of secularism weekly and monthly. The overwhelming majority of books being printed, both fiction and non-fiction promote cultural relativism, moral relativism and the basic tenets of secularism.

     Now you can see how it happened that over a period of 80 years that America was transformed from a Christian nation into a Secular State.

     The changes are profound. America's education, based upon the Holy Bible and Christian principles from 1620 to 1920, is now completely secularized.

     Radio, television and films now promote a new morality based upon, not Christian principles, but moral and cultural relativism.

No Boundaries, No Limits, No Standards, No Rules

     There are now no limits, no boundaries, no laws, no rules, no standards, and no stopping point for society. Without God and the teachings of the Holy Bible, people are adrift in a sea of moral and cultural relativism with no right and wrong, no good and evil, no light and darkness, and no true freedom because the people have been placed into the bondage of secularism and they are wake up each day not realizing that they are slaves.

Where Are the Christians?

     Where are the Christians? For years they have allowed the secularists to back them into one corner after another. Now, there is no place to go, except to leave the country.

School of Higher Criticism Targets Youth

     In the old Soviet Union, the leaders of the government simply indoctrinated the youth in the principles of communism and the let the older people die out. They target the youth. They ignored the parents and the older Russians who believed in the principles of Christianity. Instead they focused on capturing the minds of the next generation.

God Is Expelled from America

     The School of Higher Criticism is using the same strategy in America today. For over 80 years they have focused on the youth, while they insidiously gained control of the institutions of society. The evidence is overwhelming. A new secular religion had arisen and a New Secular State is being erected today. The leaders and members of the School of Higher Criticism have expelled God and the Holy Scriptures. They have evicted Christians from public life and told them never to return. They were told to go home and live their religion quietly while they assume the reigns of society.

     In 1993 one the nation's finest scholars, Stephen L. Carter, a professor of law at Yale University, documented the flight of Christianity into the wilderness of America. He entitled his study, The Culture of Disbelief. How American Law and Politics Trivialize Religious Devotion.

     Professor Carter states, "In contemporary American culture. the religions are more and more treated as just passing beliefs—almost as fads, older, stuffier, less liberal versions of so-called New Age—rather than as the fundaments upon which the devout build their lives. (The noes have it!) And if religions are fundamental, well, too bad—at least if they're the wrong fundamentalists—if they're inconvenient, give them up! If, you can't remarry because you have the wrong religious belief, well, hay, believe something else....

     "Through all of this trivializing rhetoric runs the subtle but unmistakable message: pray if you life, worship if you life, but whatever you do, do not on any account take your religion seriously....

     "But there is a message in this miasma, and the message is that people who take their religion seriously, who rely on their understanding of God for motive force in their public and political personalities—well, they're scary people....

     "The message of contemporary culture seems to be that it is perfectly all right to believe that stuff we have freedom of conscience, folks can believe what they like—but you really ought to keep it to yourself ...

Freud Believed That Religious People Were Neurotic

     "Freud believed that deep religiosity was neurotic in nature, and many psychiatrists still do....

     "So what does one do about ... people intoxicated by faith—people who actually place the demands of their religions above the secular society's demands of `good order.' When mocking them doesn't work, we have another way to deal with them. In most of the world, it would be called kidnapping. In our media—dominated secular society, however, it is dressed up with the fancy name of ‘deprogramming.’ (Stephen L. Carter, The Culture of Disbelief. New York: Basic Books, 1993, pp. 14-15, 24-25, 28, 29)

     Carter goes on to say that, "To insist that the state's secular moral judgments should guide the practices of all religions is to trivialize the idea that faith matters to people. When Martin Luther King, Jr., declared in his `Letter from Birmingham City Jail,' that a ‘just law is a manmade code that squares with the moral law or the law of God,' he was not bandying words; he was stating a bedrock commitment to t he authority of God as superior to the authority of the state, a commitment on which much of the civil rights movement explicitly and enthusiastically rested....

     "To try to make the religions, in their internal organizations, conform to the state's vision of a properly ordered society is not simply a corruption of the constitutional tradition of religious freedom; it is also an assault on the autonomy of religions as bulwarks against state authority." (Cater, The Culture of Disbelief, pp. 38-39.)

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Chapter 30 — Is It Time to Replace Secularism With Christianity?

A Continuation of the War in Heaven

     The principles of the Christian religion served as the foundation of American for nearly 300 years. However, the School of Higher Criticism has declared war on these principles and they will not stop until they are not only driven from America, but from the entire world. This is a global ideological war. It is a war which has raged on earth over 6000 years. It is a continuation of the War in Heaven. There are no truces in this war. There are no peace treaties in this war. (See the Book of Revelation, chapters 12-20 in the King James Version of the Holy Bible.)

     The gospel of Jesus Christ, as contained in the Holy Scriptures, is the greatest threat on earth to the School of Higher Criticism. That is why they are determined to drive the gospel of Jesus Christ from its divinely appointed base of operations in the last days.

Christianity Poses a Major Threat to Secularism

     Professor Carter discussed this war when he said, "Today's political philosophers see public dialogue an essentially, secular, bounded by requirements of rationality and reason. It is not easy to fit religion [especially the Christian faith] into that universe, which is why some religiously devout people find themselves at war with the dominant trends in contemporary philosophy.

     In the words of Mark Tushnet, religion ‘poses a threat to the intellectual world of the liberal tradition because it is a form of social life that mobilizes the deepest passions of believers in the course of creating institutions that stand between individuals and the state.' (Carter, The Culture of Disbelief, p. 42.)

Christian Churches Are the Last Stronghold against Secularism

     The one bulwark that is preventing a tidal wave of secularism from sweeping across the nation is the gospel of Jesus Christ. Christians of all denominations need to valiantly uphold the Holy Bible and its teachings. The leaders and members of the School of Higher Criticism know that they must depose the Holy Bible and its teachings from America if they are going to complete their conversion of the American people to secularism and established a Secular State with its political, economic, social and religious agenda.

The Importance of the Bill of Rights

     The founding fathers of the American Republic wisely provided the Bill of Rights in the State Constitutions and the Bill of Rights, which is the First Ten Amendments to the U. S. Constitution to prevent the Federal Government from established a state church in America..

     Since Justice Black wrote his famous majority opinion in Everson v. Board of Education in 1947, where he misquoted and misapplied the comments of Thomas Jefferson, the U. Su Supreme Court has been doing the very thing that the framers forbid Congress from doing. The First Amendment states that, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...."

The Supreme Court Has Set up a New State Religion in America

     The Supreme Court has established a state religion by removing every aspect of the Christian Religion from the public square and allowing the religion of secularism to reign in its stead. And the Supreme Court has prohibited the Christians in America from exercising their Christian Religion in the public square. The School of Higher Criticism, which has some of best lawyers money can buy on its payroll, has deceived certain members of the Supreme Court into believing that secularism is not a belief system or religion.

     Secularism is just as much a religion as Catholicism or Protestantism. Secularism is a set of specific beliefs about life and those beliefs have been carefully documented for all to see.

Secularism is a Major Religion in the World

     The Supreme Court has tried to deceive and manipulate the members of Congress and the American people into believing that secularism in not a religion and therefore it is exempt from the provisions of the First Amendment. If secularism was considered a religion, then the court would be duty bound to remove it from the public square. The School of Higher Criticism has used clever and cunning legal arguments to deceive the legal community in America to exempt secularism from being classified a religion.

The Reason for the Impeachment Clause

     The founding fathers wisely placed a provision in the U. S. Constitution to deal with activist judges who exceeded their authority and placed the government into jeopardy. It is called the impeachment process.

     The philosophy, teachings, principles, tenets, dogma of humanism, agnosticism and atheism operate under a common religious title. It is called secularism and it is far more dangerous that any terrorist or terrorist organization in the world. America is under attack today by a deadly philosophy that is daily destroying the lives of the nation's youth, young adults and citizens.

The First Amendment is Being Used to Destroy Christianity

     The School of Higher Criticism is using the First Amendment to destroy Christianity in America. And it is using the First Amendment to promote and uphold the dogmas of the religion of secularism.

     We may choose to ignore these facts, but that does not alter the secularists from implementing their plan, In fact they are hoping that you do ignore the facts.

     Professor Carter warned that, "The potential transformation of the Establishment Clause from a guardian of religious liberty into a guarantor of public secularism raises prospects at once dismal and dreadful." (Carter, The Culture of Disbelief, pp. 122-123.)

Commentary on the Laws of England by William Blackstone

     The Great English Jurist, Sir William Blackstone, held that a law which violated the laws of God was null and void. Do members of the Federal bench need a refresher course in the foundations of English and common law? (See the complete, unabridged version of the Blackstone’s famous treatise, Commentaries on the Laws of England.)

Should all laws conform to the laws of God as contained in the Holy Bible? Sound like a radical doctrine. Well, the founding fathers of the American Republic did not think so. They structured the legal foundations for most free and prosperous nation on earth squarely upon the Holy Bible.

     The early colonists and the founding fathers of the American Republic believed that we should honor, uphold, sustain, and promote the greatest law book on earth—the Holy Bible. Some of the greatest men to ever walk the face of the earth—Hugo Grotius, Algernon Sidney, William Blackstone, James Otis, John Adams, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and a host of other prominent lawyers and judges who believed that the Holy Bible was the Word of God. Shall we stand with them?

 

Promoting the Freedom, Sovereignty, & Independence of America