Christopher Columbus Institute
Discovery and Exploration

Columbus, Letter to the King and Queen of Spain
(c. 1494)

Short introduction

Most High and Mighty Sovereigns,

In obedience to your Highnesses' commands, and with submission to superior
judgment, I will say whatever occurs to me in reference to the colonization and
commerce of the Island of Espanola, and of the other islands, both those already
discovered and those that may be discovered hereafter.

In the first place, as regards the Island of Espanola: Inasmuch as the number of
colonists who desire to go thither amounts to two thousand, owing to the land
being safer and better for farming and trading, and because it will serve as a
place to which they can return and from which they can carry on trade with the
neighboring islands:

That in the said island there shall be founded three or four towns, situated
in the most convenient places, and that the settlers who are there be assigned
to the aforesaid places and towns.

That for the better and more speedy colonization of the said island, no one
shall have liberty to collect gold in it except those who have taken out
colonists' papers, and have built houses for their abode, in the town in which
they are, that they may live united and in greater safety.

That each town shall have its alcalde [Mayor] ... and its notary public, as is
the use and custom in Castile.

That there shall he a church, and parish priests or friars to administer the
sacraments, to perform divine worship, and for the conversion of the Indians.
That none of the colonists shall go to seek gold without a license from the
governor or alcalde of the town where he lives; and that he must first take
oath to return to the place whence he sets out, for the purpose of registering
faithfully all the gold he may have found, and to return once a month, or once
a week, as the time may have been set for him, to render account and show the
quantity of said gold; and that this shall be written down by the notary
before the aIcalde, or, if it seems better, that a friar or priest, deputed
for the purpose, shall be also present.

That all the gold thus brought in shall be smelted immediately, and stamped
with some mark that shall distinguish each town; and that the portion which
belongs to your Highnesses shall be weighed, and given and consigned to each
alcalde in his own town, and registered by the above-mentioned priest or
friar, so that it shall not pass through the hands of only one person, and
there shall he no opportunity to conceal the truth.

That all gold that may be found without the mark of one of the said towns in
the possession of any one who has once registered in accordance with the above
order shall be taken as forfeited, and that the accuser shall have one portion
of it and your Highnesses the other.

That one per centum of all the gold that may be found shall be set aside for
building churches and adorning the same, and for the support of the priests or
friars belonging to them; and, if it should be thought proper to pay any thing
to the alcaldes or notaries for their services, or for ensuring the faithful
perforce of their duties, that this amount shall be sent to the governor or
treasurer who may be appointed there by your Highnesses.

As regards the division of the gold, and the share that ought to be reserved
for your Highnesses, this, in my opinion, must be left to the aforesaid
governor and treasurer, because it will have to be greater or less according
to the quantity of gold that may be found. Or, should it seem preferable, your
Highnesses might, for the space of one year, take one half, and the collector
the other, and a better arrangement for the division be made afterward.
That if the said alcaldes or notaries shall commit or be privy to any fraud,
punishment shall be provided, and the same for the colonists who shall not
have declared all the gold they have.

That in the said island there shall be a treasurer, with a clerk to assist
him, who shall receive all the gold belonging to your Highnesses, and the
alcaldes and notaries of the towns shall each keep a record of what they
deliver to the said treasurer.

As, in the eagerness to get gold, every one will wish, naturally, to engage in
its search in preference to any other employment, it seems to me that the
privilege of going to look for gold ought to be withheld during some portion
of each year, that there may be opportunity to have the other business
necessary for the island performed.

In regard to the discovery of new countries, I think permission should be
granted to all that wish to go, and more liberality used in the matter of the
fifth, making the tax easier, in some fair way, in order that many may be
disposed to go on voyages.

I will now give my opinion about ships going to the said Island of Espanola, and
the order that should be maintained; and that is, that the said ships should
only be allowed to discharge in one or two ports designated for the purpose, and
should register there whatever cargo they bring or unload; and when the time for
their departure comes, that they should sail from these same ports, and register
all the cargo they take in, that nothing may be concealed.

In reference to the transportation of gold from the island to Castile, that
all of it should be taken on board the ship, both that belonging to your
Highnesses and the property of every one else; that it should all be placed in
one chest with two locks, with their keys, and that the master of the vessel
keep one key and some person selected by the governor and treasurer the other;
that there should come with the gold, for a testimony, a list of all that has
been put into the said chest, properly marked, so that each owner may receive
his own; and that, for the faithful performance of this duty, if any gold
whatsoever is found outside of the said chest in any way, be it little or
much, it shall be forfeited to your Highnesses.

That all the ships that come from the said island shall be obliged to make
their proper discharge in the port of Cadiz, and that no person shall
disembark or other person be permitted to go on board until the ship has been
visited by the person or persons deputed for that purpose, in the said city,
by your Highnesses, to whom the master shall show all that he carries, and
exhibit the manifest of all the cargo, it may be seen and examined if the said
ship brings any thing hidden and not known at the time of lading.

That the chest in which the said gold has been carried shall be opened in the
presence of the magistrates of the said city of Cadiz, and of the person
deputed for that purpose by your Highnesses, and his own property be given to
each owner. -

I beg your Highnesses to hold me in your protection; and I remain, praying our
Lord God for your Highnesses' lives and the increase of much greater States.

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