Christopher Columbus Institute
Discovery and Exploration


Concerning the Islands Recently Discovered in the Indian Sea


Some minor typographical errors have been corrected as of 9 Feb 1998.
Note: The following is a literal translation from Latin. Although this will
be rather strange to modern readers, it has been done to provide students
with a flavor of the original text. We have, however, added paragraph
breaks to aid reading. We hope in the future to add an idiomatic
translation to this web site.

We have based the following from Lenox, 1-13, which was a translation of
the Basel 1493 edition. Some small changes have been made so as to agree
with the text of the 1494 edition.

Introduction added by Aliander de Cosco:  Letter of Christopher Columbus, to
whom our age owes much, concerning the islands recently discovered in the
Indian sea. For the search of which, eight months before, he was sent
under the auspices and at the cost of the most invincible Ferdinand, king
of Spain. Addressed to the magnificent lord Raphael Sanxis, a treasurer of
the same most illustrious king, and which the noble and learned man
Aliander de Cosco has translated from the Spanish language into Latin, on
the third of the kalends of May, 1493, the first year of the pontificate
of Alexander the Sixth.

Because my undertakings have attained success, I know that it will be
pleasing to you: these I have determined to relate, so that you may be
made acquainted with everything done and discovered in this our voyage. On
the thirty-third day after I departed from Cadiz, I came to the Indian
sea, where I found many islands inhabited by men without number, of all
which I took possession for our most fortunate king, with proclaiming
heralds and flying standards, no one objecting. To the first of these I
gave the name of the blessed Saviour, on whose aid relying I had reached
this as well as the other islands. But the Indians call it Guanahany. I
also called each one of the others by a new name. For I ordered one island
to be called Santa Maria of the Conception, another Fernandina, another
Isabella, another Juana, and so on with the rest.
As soon as we had arrived at that island which I have just now said was
called Juana, I proceeded along its coast towards the west for some
distance; I found it so large and without perceptible end, that I believed
it to be not an island, but the continental country of Cathay; seeing,
however, no towns or cities situated on the sea-coast, but only some
villages and rude farms, with whose inhabitants I was unable to converse,
because as soon as they saw us they took flight.
I proceeded farther, thinking that I would discover some city or large
residences. At length, perceiving that we had gone far enough, that
nothing new appeared, and that this way was leading us to the north, which
I wished to avoid, because it was winter on the land, and it was my
intention to go to the south, moreover the winds were becoming violent, I
therefore determined that no other plans were practicable, and so, going
back, I returned to a certain bay that I had noticed, from which I sent
two of our men to the land, that they might find out whether there was a
king in this country, or any cities. These men traveled for three days,
and they found people and houses without number, but they were small and
without any government, therefore they returned.
Now in the meantime I had learned from certain Indians, whom I had seized
there, that this country was indeed an island, and therefore I proceeded
towards the east, keeping all the time near the coast, for 322 miles, to
the extreme ends of this island. From this place I saw another island to
the east distant from this Juana 54 miles, which I called forthwith
Hispana; and I sailed to it; and I steered along the northern coast, as at
Juana, towards the east, 564 miles.
And the said Juana and the other islands there appear very fertile. This
island is surrounded by many very safe and wide harbors, not excelled by
any others that I have ever seen. Many great and salubrious rivers flow
through it. There are also many very high mountains there. All these
islands are very beautiful, and distinguished by various qualities; they
are accessible, and full of a great variety of trees stretching up to the
stars; the leaves of which I believe are never shed, for I saw them as
green and flourishing as they are usually in Spain in the month of May;
some of them were blossoming, some were bearing fruit, some were in other
conditions; each one was thriving in its own way. The nightingale and
various other birds without number were singing, in the month of November,
when I was exploring them.
There are besides in the said island Juana seven or eight kinds of palm
trees, which far excel ours in height and beauty, just as all the other
trees, herbs, and fruits do. There are also excellent pine trees, vast
plains and meadows, a variety of birds, a variety of honey, and a variety
of metals, excepting iron. In the one which was called Hispana, as we said
above, there are great and beautiful mountains, vast fields, groves,
fertile plains, very suitable for planting and cultivating, and for the
building of houses. The convenience of the harbors in this island, and the
remarkable number of rivers contributing to the healthfulness of man,
exceed belief, unless one has seen them. The trees, pasturage, and fruits
of this island differ greatly from those of Juana. This Hispana, moreover,
abounds in different kinds of spices, in gold, and in metals. On this
island, indeed, and on all the others which I have seen, and of which I
have knowledge, the inhabitants of both sexes go always naked, just as
they came into the world, except some of the women, who use a covering of
a leaf or some foliage, or a cotton cloth, which they make themselves for
that purpose.
All these people lack, as I said above, every kind of iron; they are also
without weapons, which indeed are unknown; nor are they competent to use
them, not on account of deformity of body, for they are well formed, but
because they are timid and full of fear. They carry for weapons, however,
reeds baked in the sun, on the lower ends of which they fasten some shafts
of dried wood rubbed down to a point; and indeed they do not venture to
use these always; for it frequently happened when I sent two or three of
my men to some of the villages, that they might speak with the natives, a
compact troop of the Indians would march out, and as soon as they saw our
men approaching, they would quickly take flight, children being pushed
aside by their fathers, and fathers by their children. And this was not
because any hurt or injury had been inflicted on any one of them, for to
every one whom I visited and with whom I was able to converse, I
distributed whatever I had, cloth and many other things, no return being
made to me; but they are by nature fearful and timid.
Yet when they perceive that they are safe, putting aside all fear, they
are of simple manners and trustworthy, and very liberal with everything
they have, refusing no one who asks for anything they may possess, and
even themselves inviting us to ask for things. They show greater love for
all others than for themselves; they give valuable things for trifles,
being satisfied even with a very small return, or with nothing; however, I
forbade that things so small and of no value should be given to them, such
as pieces of plates, dishes, and glass, likewise keys and shoelace tips
although if they were to obtain these, it seemed to them like getting the
most beautiful jewels in the world. It happened, indeed, that a certain
sailor obtained in exchange for a shoelace tips as much worth of gold as
would equal three golden coins; and likewise other things for articles of
very little value, especially for new silver coins, and for some gold
coins, to obtain which they gave whatever the seller desired, as for
instance an ounce and a half and two ounces of gold, or thirty and forty
pounds of cotton, with which they were already acquainted. They also
traded cotton and gold for pieces of bows, bottles, jugs and jars, like
persons without reason, which I forbade because it was very wrong; and I
gave to them many beautiful and pleasing things that I had brought with
me, no value being taken in exchange, in order that I might the more
easily make them friendly to me, that they might be made worshipers of
Christ, and that they might be full of love towards our king, queen, and
prince, and the whole Spanish nation; also that they might be zealous to
search out and collect, and deliver to us those things of which they had
plenty, and which we greatly needed.
These people practice no kind of idolatry; on the contrary they firmly
believe that all strength and power, and in fact all good things are in
heaven, and that I had come down from thence with these ships and sailors;
and in this belief I was received there after they had put aside fear. Nor
are they slow or unskilled, but of excellent and acute understanding; and
the men who have navigated that sea give an account of everything in an
admirable manner; but they never saw people clothed, nor these kind of
ships. As soon as I reached that sea, I seized by force several Indians on
the first island, in order that they might learn from us, and in like
manner tell us about those things in these lands of which they themselves
had knowledge; and the plan succeeded, for in a short time we understood
them and they us, sometimes by gestures and signs, sometimes by words; and
it was a great advantage to us. They are coming with me now, yet always
believing that I descended from heaven, although they have been living
with us for a long time, and are living with us to-day. And these men were
the first who announced it wherever we landed, continually proclaiming to
the others in a loud voice, "Come, come, and you will see the celestial
people." Whereupon both women and men, both young men and old men, laying
aside the fear caused a little before, visited us eagerly, filling the
road with a great crowd, some bringing food, and some drink, with great
love and extraordinary goodwill.
On every island there are many canoes of a single piece of wood; and
though narrow, yet in length and shape similar to our row-boats, but
swifter in movement. They steer only by oars. Some of these boats are
large, some small, some of medium size. Yet they row many of the larger
row-boats with eighteen cross-benches, with which they cross to all those
islands, which are innumerable, and with these boats they perform their
trading, and carry on commerce among them. I saw some of these row- boats
or canoes which were carrying seventy and eighty rowers.
In all these island there is no difference in the appearance of the
people, nor in the manners and language, but all understand each other
mutually; a fact that is very important for the end which I suppose to be
earnestly desired by our most illustrious king, that is, their conversion
to the holy religion of Christ, to which in truth, as far as I can
perceive, they are very ready and favorably inclined.
I said before how I proceeded along the island Juana in a straight line
from west to east 322 miles, according to which course and the length of
the way, I am able to say that this Juana is larger than England and
Scotland together; for besides the said 322 thousand paces, there are two
more provinces in that part which lies toward the west, which I did not
visit; one of these the Indians call Anan, whose inhabitants are born with
tails. They extend to 180 miles in length, as I have learned from those
Indians I have with me, who are all acquainted with these islands.
But the circumference of Hispana is greater than all Spain from Colonia
[Catalonia] to Fontarabia [Fuenterrabia]. And this is easily proved,
because its fourth side, which I myself passed along in a straight line
from west to east, extends 540 miles. This island is to be desired and is
very desirable, and not to be despised; in which, although as I have said,
I solemnly took possession of all the others for our most invincible king,
and their government is entirely committed to the said king, yet I
especially took possession of a certain large town, in a very convenient
location, and adapted to all kinds of gain and commerce, to which we give
the name of our Lord of the Nativity. And I commanded a fort to be built
where forthwith, which must be completed by this time; in which I left as
many men as seemed necessary, with all kinds of arms, and plenty of food
for more than a year. Likewise one caravel, and for the construction of
others men skilled in this trade and in other professions; and also the
extraordinary good will and friendship of the king of this island toward
us. For those people are very amiable and kind, to such a degree that the
said king gloried in calling me his brother. And if they should change
their minds, and should wish to hurt those who remained in the fort, they
would not be able, because they lack weapons, they go naked, and are too
cowardly. For that reason those who hold the said fort are at least able
to resist easily this whole island, without any imminent danger to
themselves, so long as they do not transgress the regulations and command
which we gave.
In all these islands, as I have understood, each man is content with only
one wife, except the princes or kings, who are permitted to have twenty.
The women appear to work more than the men. I was not able to find out
surely whether they have individual property, for I saw that one man had
the duty of distributing to the others, especially refreshments, food, and
things of that kind. I found no monstrosities among them, as very many
supposed, but men of great reverence, and friendly. Nor are they black
like the Ethiopians. They have straight hair, hanging down. They do not
remain where the solar rays send out the heat, for the strength of the sun
is very great here, because it is distant from the equinoctial line, as it
seems, only twenty-six degrees. On the tops of the mountains too the cold
is severe, but the Indians, however, moderate it, partly by being
accustomed to the place, and partly by the help of very hot victuals, of
which they eat frequently and immoderately.
And so I did not see any monstrosity, nor did I have knowledge of them any
where, excepting a certain island named Charis, which is the second in
passing from Hispana to India. This island is inhabited by a certain
people who are considered very warlike by their neighbors. These eat human
flesh. The said people have many kinds of row-boats, in which they cross
over to all the other Indian islands, and seize and carry away everything
that they can. They differ in no way from the others, only that they wear
long hair like the women. They use bows and darts made of reeds, with
sharpened shafts fastened to the larger end, as we have described. On this
account they are considered warlike, wherefore the other Indians are
afflicted with continual fear, but I regard them as of no more account
than the others. These are the people who visit certain women, who alone
inhabit the island of Mateunin, which is the first in passing from Hispana
to India. These women, moreover, perform no kind of work of their sex, for
they use bows and darts, like those I have described of their husbands;
they protect themselves with sheets of copper, of which there is a great
abundance among them. They tell of another island greater than the
aforesaid Hispana, whose inhabitants are without hair, and which abounds
in gold above all the others. I am bringing with me men of this island and
of the others that I have seen, who give proof of the things that I have
Finally, that I may compress in a few words the brief account of our
departure and quick return, and the gain, I promise this, that If I am
supported by our most invincible sovereigns with a little of their help,
as much gold can be supplied as they will need, indeed as much of spices,
of cotton, of mastic gum (which is only found in Chios), also as much of
aloes wood, and as many slaves for the navy, as their Majesties will wish
to demand. Likewise rhubarb and other kinds of spices, which I suppose
these men whom I left in the said fort have already found, and will
continue to find; since I remained in no place longer than the winds
forced me, except in the town of the Nativity, while I provided for the
building of the fort, and for the safety of all. Which things, although
they are very great and remarkable, yet they would have been much greater,
if I had been aided by as many ships as the occasion required.
Truly great and wonderful is this, and not corresponding to our merits,
but to the holy Christian religion, and to the piety and religion of our
sovereigns, because what the human understanding could not attain, that
the divine will has granted to human efforts. For God is wont to listen to
his servants who love his precepts, even in impossibilities, as has
happened to us on the present occasion, who have attained that which
hitherto mortal men have never reached. For if anyone has written or said
anything about these islands, it was all with obscurities and conjectures;
no one claims that he had seen them; from which they seemed like fables.
Therefore let the king and queen, the princes and their most fortunate
kingdoms, and all other countries of Christendom give thanks to our Lord
and Saviour Jesus Christ, who has bestowed upon us so great a victory and
gift. Let religious processions be solemnized; let sacred festivals be
given; let the churches be covered with festive garlands. Let Christ
rejoice on earth, as he rejoices in heaven, when he foresees coming to
salvation so many souls of people hitherto lost. Let us be glad also, as
well on account of the exaltation of our faith, as on account of the
increase of our temporal affairs, of which not only Spain, but universal
Christendom will be partaker. These things that have been done are thus
briefly related. Farewell.
Lisbon, the day before the Ides of March.
Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the Ocean Fleet.
Epigram added by the bishop of Monte Peloso Epigram of R. L. de Corbaria,
bishop of Monte Peloso.
To the most invincible King of Spain.
No region now can add to Spain's great deeds:
To such men all the world is yet too small.
An Orient land, found far beyond the waves,
Will add, great Baetic, to thy renown.
Then to Columbus, the true finder, give
Due thanks; but greater still to God on high;
Who makes new kingdoms for himself and thee:
Both firm and pious let thy conduct be.

Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education
University of Southern Maine


Promoting a Greater Understanding of the Discovery of the Americas